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Chelonoidis carbonarius (SPIX, 1824)

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Higher TaxaTestudinidae, Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles)
Common NamesE: Red-footed Tortoise
G: Köhlerschildkröte
Portuguese: Jaboti, Jabuti, Jabuti-Piranga, Jabuti-Vermelho 
SynonymTestudo carbonaria SPIX 1824
Testudo boiei WAGLER 1833
Geochelone (Chelonoidis) boiei — FITZINGER 1835
Geochelone (Chelonoidis) tabulata — FITZINGER 1835 (partim)
Testudo carbonaria — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 99
Testudo carbonaria — BELL 1836-1842
Testudo (Chelonoidis) boiei — TSCHUDI 1845
Testudo Carbonaria — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 220
Testudo tabulata — BOULENGER 1889 (partim)
Geochelone carbonaria — WILLIAMS 1960
Testudo carbonaria — WERMUTH & MERTENS 1961
Geochelone (Chelonoidis) carbonaria — PRITCHARD 1967
Testudo (Chelonoidis) carbonaria — WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977
Chelonoidis carbonaria — BOUR 1980
Geochelone carbonaria — ERNST & BARBOUR 1989
Geochelone carbonaria — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 169
Chelonoidis carbonaria — CEI 1993
Geochelone carbonaria — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Geochelone carbonaria — ZIEGLER et al. 2002
Chelonoidis carbonaria — MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2004
Chelonoidis carbonaria — LE et al. 2006
Geochelone carbonaria — DALTRY 2007
Chelonoidis carbonaria — MCNISH 2011
Chelonoidis carbonaria — TTWG 2014
Chelonoidis carbonarius — OLSON & DAVID 2014
Chelonoidis carbonarius — TTWG 2017: 123
Chelonoidis carbonarius — TTWG 2021 
DistributionNicaragua (Great Corn Island and mainland locations), SE Panama, Colombia (west of the Andes in Choco), east of the Andes in E Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, French Guiana, Suriname, E Brazil (south to Rio de Janeiro; seems absent from almost all but the eastern parts of the Amazon Basin: Rio Grande do Sul, Goias, Espírito Santo, Ceará, Bahia etc.), Peru, E Bolivia, Paraguay, N Argentina, Trinidad, Virgin Islands (St. Croix); introduced to a number of Carribean Islands (incl. Providencia, Grenadine islands, St. Kitts)

Type locality: "Habitat sub cognomine "Capitary" (?) ad flumen Amazonum," South America (cited in KING & BURKE 1989).  
Reproductionoviparous. C. carbonarius exhibits a temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD)mechanism with females produced at, or above, 29°C. 
TypesLectotype: iconotype, Hoogmoed and Gruber (1983:354), selected as lectotype plate XVI of Spix 1824. Holotype: orignally ZSM, now lost. 
CommentSynonymy modified after CEI 1993.

Hybridization: FRITZ (1995) reports hybrids between Geochelone radiata and G. carbonaria.

Daniel O’Malley (e-mail as of 12 June 2009) thinks that Chelonoidis_carbonaria4.jpg is actually C. denticulata.

Type species: Testudo boiei WAGLER 1833 is the type species of the genus Chelonoidis FITZINGER 1835: 112, 122 (see also FITZINGER 1843).

Nomenclature: The gender of this genus is masculine, contrary to previous belief (OLSON & DAVID 2014).

Phylogenetics: for a phylogenetic tree of the species in the genus see Pereira et al. 2017. 
EtymologyThe generic name is derived from Greek “chelonos” = turtle. 
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