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Chilorhinophis butleri WERNER, 1907

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Higher TaxaAtractaspididae (Aparallactinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesButler's Two-headed Snake
carpenteri: Mozambique Two-headed Snake
liwalensis: Eastern Tanganyika Two-headed Snake, Liwale Two-headed Snake 
SynonymChilorhinophis butleri WERNER 1907
Parkerophis carpenteri PARKER 1927: 85
Chilorhinophis butleri — DE WITTE & LAURENT 1947: 56
Chilorhinophis carpenteri — DE WITTE & LAURENT 1947: 57
Chilorhinophis carpenteri liwalensis LOVERIDGE 1951
Chilorhinophis carpenteri liwalensis — LOVERIDGE 1958
Chilorhinophis butleri — LOVERIDGE 1958
Chilorhinophis butleri carpenteri — BROADLEY & HOWELL 1991: 29
Chilorhinophis carpenteri — WELCH 1994: 43
Chilorhinophis butleri — WELCH 1994: 43
Chilorhinophis butleri — WALLACH et al. 2014: 157
Chilorhinophis butleri — SPAWLS et al. 2018: 465 
DistributionRepublic of South Sudan (RSS), Tanzania, Mozambique, Uganda ?, Kenya ?, Rwanda ?, Burundi ?

Type locality: from Mongalla in the southern Sudan (fide D. BROADLEY, pers. comm.).

carpenteri: Mozambique; Type locality: Anquabe = Ancuabe, Mozambique.

liwalensis: S Tanzania; Type locality: Liwale, Southern Province, Tanzania.  
TypesHolotype: NMW 14729 (NHM Wien)
Holotype: BMNH [carpenteri]
Holotype: MCZ 50076 [liwalensis] 
DiagnosisHead black above, body yellow with three longitudinal black stripes, ventrals yellow or orange, tail black, tail tip white (Spawls et al 2018: 465). 

Known only from the type.

According to the Zoological Record WERNER didn’t describe any snake in 1907 that is named like Chilorhinophis butleri.

Subspecies: Chilorhinophis butleri carpenteri is treated here as a valid species.

Synonymy: Battersby placed Parkerophis carpenteri Parker 1927, described from northern Mozambique, as a synonym of C. butleri, but Loveridge (1958) disagreed and recognised a subspecies C. carpenteri liwalensis from southeastern Tanzania.

Type species: Chilorhinophis butleri WERNER 1907 is the type species of the genus Chilorhinophis WERNER 1907.

Phylogenetics: see Portillo et al. 2018 for a phylogenetic analysis of members of Aparallactinae, inlcuding members of Chilorhinophis.

Definition of genus in LOVERIDGE 1958: 168. 
EtymologyNamed after Arthur Lennox Butler (1873-1939), a zoologist, curator at the Selangor Museum, Malaya, and later Superintendent of Game Preservation in Sudan. 
  • Battersby,J.C. 1950. A new amphisbaenid lizard from Tanganika territory and notes on the rare snake Chilorhinophis. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (12) 3: 413-417 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Broadley, D. G. & HOWELL, K. M. 1991. A check list of the reptiles of Tanzania, with synoptic keys. Syntarsus 1: 1—70
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Loveridge, A. 1951. On reptiles and amphibians from Tanganyika Territory collected by C.J.P. Ionides. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harvard 106 (4): 175- 204. - get paper here
  • Loveridge,A. 1958. Revision of five african snake genera. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 119: 1-198 (141) - get paper here
  • Parker, H.W. 1927. Parallel evolution in some opisthoglyphous snakes, with the description of a new species. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (9) 20: 81-86 - get paper here
  • Portillo, F., Branch, W.R., Conradie, W., Rödel, M-O., Penner, J., Barej, M.F., Kusamba, C., Muninga, W.M., Aristote, M.M., Bauer, A.M., Trape, J-F., Nagy, Z.T., Carlino, P., Pauwels, O.S.G., Menegon, M., Burger, M., Mazuch, T., Jackson, K., Hughes, 2018. Phylogeny and biogeography of the African burrowing snake subfamily Aparallactinae (Squamata: Lamprophiidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - get paper here
  • Spawls, S.; Howell, K.; Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. 2002. A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press, 543 pp. [reviews in HR 34: 396 and Afr. J. Herp. 51; 147] - get paper here
  • Spawls, Steve; Kim Howell, Harald Hinkel, Michele Menegon 2018. Field Guide to East African Reptiles. Bloomsbury, 624 pp. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner, F. 1908. Ergebnisse der mit Subvention aus der Erbschaft Treitl unternommenen zoologischen Forschungsreise Dr. Franz Werner's nach nach dem Ägyptischen Sudan und Norduganda. XII. die Reptilien und Amphibien. [Mabuia mongallensis, Leptodira attarensis]. Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien 116 [1907]: 1823-1926 - get paper here
  • Witte, G. F. de & LAURENT,R.F. 1947. Revision d'un groupe de Colubridae africains: genres Calamelaps, Miodon, Aparallactus, et formes affines. Mém. Mus. Roy. Hist. Nat. Belgique (sér. 2) 29: 1-134
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