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Chironius bicarinatus (WIED-NEUWIED, 1820)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Two-headed Sipo
Portuguese: Cainana, Caninana-Verde, Caninana-Verde-Comum, Cobra-Cipó, Cobra-Cipó-Bicarinada, Cobra-Espada, Cobra-Verde, Espia-Caminho, Serra-Azul, Voadeira 
SynonymColuber bicarinatus WIED 1820
Natrix bicarinatus (WIED) — MERREM 1820
Natrix bicarinata — WAGLER 1824: 23
Erpetodryas bicarinatus (WIED) — BOIE 1826
Herpetodryas bicarinatus (WIED) — WAGLER 1830
Herpetodryas bicarinata (WIED) — FITZINGER 1843
Herpetodryas carinatus (not of LINNAEUS) — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854
Herpetodryas carinatus var. bicarinata — BOETTGER 1898
Chironius carinatus (not of LINNAEUS) — AMARAL 1925
Chironius bicarinatus (Wied) — BAILEY 1955
Chironius bicarinatus — CEI 1993
Chironius bicarinatus — HOLLIS 2006
Chironius bicarinatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 159
Chironius bicarinatus — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (Espirito Santo, E Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Sul, Sao Paulo, Goias, Sergipe, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro), NE Argentina (Misiones), NW Uruguay, Paraguay (fide Paul Smith, pers. comm., 27 Apr 2014)

Type locality: Lake near the Rio Jacú, 5 "leguas" (= leagues)south of Espirito Santo city, Espirito Santo, Brazil.  
TypesHolotype: unlocated (DIXON et al. 1993) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Dixon et al. 1993: 59.

Updated diagnosis: Chironius bicarinatus can be distinguished from all its congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) 12/12/10 dorsal rows, two keeled rows, and two apical pits (sometimes 13/13/10, 14/13/ 10, 12/10/10, 10/10/10); (2) preoculars usually one (rarely two); (3) postoculars usually two (rarely three); (4) loreal present, single, rectangular; (5) temporals 1þ1 or 1þ2 (rarely 1þ1þ1, 1þ1þ2); (6) supralabials eight to nine, with fourth, fifth, and sixth in contact with orbit; (7) infralabials 7–10, with 1–4 in contact with chin shield; (8) ventrals 146–172 (146–163 in males, 157–172 in females); (9) subcaudals 129– 155 pairs (136–155 in males, 132–172 in females); (10) adults have dorsal pattern with dark green background, scales sometimes with light blue margin, two conspicuous black dorsal stripes with light green vertebral stripe between them that gradually dissipates to the tail, snout orange or yellow, supralabials and infralabials vivid yellow, ventrally uniform yellow or dark green, juveniles with alternating dark green and white crossbands (in preservative, green surfaces turn gray or blue, and yellow surfaces turn white); (11) ventral pattern immaculate yellow on the first body third, gradually turning light green to tail; (12) body size moderate, SVL 220–890 mm; (13) head length 2.5–4.5% of SVL; (14) tail length large, 59–62% of SVL; (15) hemipenis unilobed, unicalyculate, cylindrical, covered with spinulate calyces on apex and second body third (Entiauspe-Neto et al. 2020: 102). 
CommentBehavior: diurnal

Diet: mainly frogs (this seems to be true for most Chironius, fide CADLE 1992); birds, and lizards, which it actively forages over the forest substrate (Dixon et al. 1993).

Distribution: For a Map see Dixon et al. 1993: 61. See map in Nogueira et al. 2019.

Habitat: partly arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018); partly terrestrial (Dixon et al. 1993). 
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