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Chlorosoma laticeps (WERNER, 1900)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesPortuguese: Cobra-Verde 
SynonymPhilodryas laticeps WERNER 1900: 198
Philodryas oligolepis GOMES in AMARAL 1921: 4
Philodryas viridissima laticeps — THOMAS 1976
Philodryas laticeps — WILLIAMS & FRANCINI 1991
Philodryas oligolepis — STARACE 1998: 313
Philodryas laticeps — ZAHER et al. 2008
Philodryas laticeps — WALLACH et al. 2014: 550
Philodryas laticeps — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019
Chlorosoma laticeps — ARREDONDO et al. 2020
Chlorosoma laticeps — MELO-SAMPAIO et al. 2020 
DistributionBolivia, Brazil

Type locality: Santa Catharina, Brazil

oligolepis: Brazil (Minas Gerais), S French Guiana, possibly Suriname (fide STARACE 1998). Type locality: Mariana, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil  
TypesHolotype: ZMB 15704, thought to be lost, hence Thomas 1976 designated a Neotype (FMNH 168003) which is invalidated by the finding of the holotype by Zaher et al. 2008. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Philodryas laticeps differs from all other species in the genus by the following combination of characters: head, body, and tail uniformly green, except for the gular region and anteriormost ventrals which are white; mucosa surrounding the larynx and trachea in the floor of the mouth covered with black pigmentation; lack of well-defined longitudinal rows of large and shallow body calyces on the distal half of the asulcate surface of the hemipenial body; lateral enlarged spines reduced to middle sized spines; distal rows of middle sized spines disposed in a typical “V-shaped” configuration on the asulcate surface of the hemipenial body; diameter of the central portion of the hemipenis larger than both proximal and distal extremities; dorsal scale rows reducing anteroposteriorly from 19–17 to 13–11; high number of ventral scales (204 to 218); ventrals angulated laterally [Zaher et al. 2008]. 
CommentSynonymy: Listed as synonym of Philodryas olfersii in PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 244.

Habitat: fully arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
  • Amaral,A. do 1921. Duas novas especies de Colubrideos opisthoglyphos brasileiros (Philodryas oligolepis e Apostolepis longicaudata). Ann. Paulistas Med. & Chirurg. 9 (7-8): 3-6
  • Arredondo, J. C., Grazziotin, F. G., Manfrini, G. J. S., Rodrigues, M. T. U., Bonatto, S. L., & Zaher, H. E. D. 2020. Molecular phylogeny of the tribe Philodryadini Cope, 1886 (Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae): Rediscovering the diversity of the South American Racers. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 60, e20206053-e20206053 - get paper here
  • Claessen, H. 2003. De slangen van de Guyanas Deel VII. Lacerta 61 (6): 221-234 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Melo-Sampaio, P. R., Passos, P., Martins, A. R., Moura-leite, J. C., Morato, S. A., Venegas, P. J., Chávez G., Venâncio N.M. & De Souza, M. B. 2020. A phantom on the trees: integrative taxonomy supports a reappraisal of rear-fanged snakes classification (Dipsadidae: Philodryadini). Zoologischer Anzeiger 290: 19-39 [dated 2021 in print version, but 2020 published online] - get paper here
  • Müller, L. 1928. Herpetologische Mitteilungen. Zool. Anz. 77: 61-84
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Starace, Fausto 1998. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. IBIS Rouge Editions, Guadeloupe, Guyane, 450 pp.
  • Starace, Fausto 2013. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. Ibis Rouge Editions, Matoury, Guyane, ISBN 978-2-84450-407-4 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner, F. 1900. Beschreibung einiger noch unbekannter neotropischer und indischer Reptilien. Zool. Anz. 23: 196-198 - get paper here
  • Williams,J.D. & Francini,F. 1991. A checklist of the Argentine snakes. Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 9 (1): 55-90
  • Zaher, H.; Scrocchi, G. & Masiero, R. 2008. Rediscovery and redescription of the type of Philodryas laticeps Werner, 1900 and the taxonomic status of P. oligolepis Gomes, 1921 (Serpentes, Colubridae). Zootaxa 1940: 25–40 - get paper here
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