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Chondrodactylus turneri (GRAY, 1864)

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Turner’s (Thick-toed) Gecko
G: Turners Dickfingergecko 
SynonymHomodactylus turneri GRAY 1864: 59 (fide BROADLEY & HOWELL 1991)
Pachydactylus bibroni turneri — PARKER 1936: 129
Pachydactylus bibroni turneri — MERTENS 1938
Pachydactylus bibronii turneri — LOVERIDGE 1947: 405
Pachydactylus bibronii turneri — WERMUTH 1965: 116
Pachydactylus laevigatus turneri — BENYR 1995
Pachydactylus turneri — BATES & HEIDEMAN 1997: 16
Pachydactylus turneri — BRANCH 1998: 252
Pachydactylus turneri — RÖSLER 2000: 100
Pachydactylus turneri — SPAWLS et al. 2001
Chondrodactylus turneri — BAUER & LAMB 2005
Chondrodactylus turneri laevigatus — BAUER & LAMB 2005
Chondrodactylus turneri — BRANCH et al. 2005
Pachydactylus turneri laevigatus — CIMATTI 2007
Chondrodactylus turneri — BATES et al. 2014: 104
Chondrodactylus turneri — EIFLER et al. 2017
Chondrodactylus turneri — HEINZ et al. 2021: 186 
DistributionRwanda, Tanzania, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Republic of South Africa, Swaziland?, Namibia, Angola (Pico Acevedo), Kenya

Type locality: ‘‘southeastern Africa,’’ (restricted to “Tette” [= Tete], Mozambique fide Loveridge 1947:405. However, Heinz et al. 2021 think it to be likely that the type series of H. turneri may have originated from multiple sites in the lower Zambezi
TypesLectotype: BMNH 1946.8.26.7, Paralectotypes: BMNH 1946.8.26.8,–13, (collector J. Kirk).; Paratype: MCZ 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A moderately sized Chondrodactylus (to ≥ 95 mm SVL, MCZ R190407) bearing prominent subdigital lamellae. Body robust and somewhat depressed. Head large, relatively deep, and subtriangular, nearly as broad as long, inflection at ear gently curved when viewed from above (contrasting with C. pulitzerae), snout typically shorter and broader than in congeners, canthus rostralis moderately developed more variable than in congeners; loreal region moderately to strongly inflated, interorbital region flattened to weakly concave. Tubercles on occipital region very large and keeled to stellate, becoming smaller on the crown and interorbital region and slightly larger again on the dorsum of the snout; interorbital and especially snout scales distinctly domed, most bearing weakly defined keels. Most anterior dorsal head tubercles in contact with one another, whereas tubercles of the occiput and nape usually well-separated from one another by tiny granules (Fig. 5D). Tubercles around ear heterogeneous, generally less massive than in other congeners. Chin and gular scales small and granular, becoming progressively smaller postero-medially (Fig. 7B), approximately 5 chin scales contained within the diameter of a single paravertebral dorsal tubercle. Dorsal tubercles large, oval to rounded, strongly keeled, variably bearing small peripheral pustules or short to long radiating ridges in a stellate pattern, becoming smaller and more conical to mucronate on flanks. Trunk tubercles usually well-separated by smaller granular scales, forming 14–18, usually very regular longitudinal rows of enlarged tubercles (Fig. 14). In addition, mid-vertebral line with much smaller, rounded, keeled tubercles separated from one another by alternating pairs of paravertrebral keeled tubercles intermediate in size between the tubercles of the mid-dorsal and more lateral tubercle rows (Fig. 6E). Tubercles on dorsum and postaxial surface of thigh and shank large, somewhat flattened, keeled or stellate. Scales on upper arm non-tuberculate, imbricating, becoming tubercular on forearm, keeled to mucronate, but much smaller than tubercles of shank. Tail distinctly verticillate, each whorl at tail-base bearing six (eight close to tail base) enlarged, though not strongly projecting, keeled or conical (dorsal) to strongly mucronate (lateral) tubercles; tubercles per whorl decreasing to 4 then 2 on distal portion of tail. Dorsal coloration buff to light to medium brown, sometimes with reddish or grayish tones with indistinct to moderately welldeveloped dark brown to almost black dorsal crossbars, especially prominent anteriorly. Basic pattern similar to congeners, with nape, shoulder, mid-body, mid-abdomen, and hip bands. White tubercles, when present, typically immediately posterior to or within dark bands. Tail banded, boldly or obscured, with 8–10 dark bands fading laterally; boundaries between pale and dark bands usually marked by complete or incomplete dark brown edges; some darker bands may be reduced to middorsal blotches. Additionally, C. turneri exhibits a genetic autapomorphy—a rearrangement of the genes coding for transfer RNAs downstream of ND2 (see Discussion), which is not only unique among its congeners, but also among all gekkotans (Heinz et al. 2021). 
CommentType species: Homodactylus turneri GRAY 1864 is the type species of the genus Homodactylus GRAY 1864, which was synonymized with Pachydactylus by PETERS 1865.

Similar species: C. laevigatus, C. bibronii.

Distribution: Not in Angola fide Marques et al. 2018. See map in Heinz et al. 2021: 190 (Fig. 16). 
EtymologyNamed after J. Aspinall Turner (1797-1867), a British entomologist, cotton merchant, manufacturer, and Member of Parliament (1857-1865). He founded the Manchester Field Naturalist Club and was a member of the Royal Entomological Society. 
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