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Cnemaspis monachorum GRISMER, AHMAD, CHAN, BELABUT, MUIN, WOOD & GRISMER, 2009

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Monks’ Rock Gecko 
SynonymCnemaspis monachorum GRISMER, AHMAD, CHAN, BELABUT, MUIN, WOOD & GRISMER 2009
Cnemaspis monachorum — GRISMER 2011
Cnemaspis monachorum — GRISMER & QUAH 2019 
DistributionMalaysia (Pulau Langkawi, Kedah)

Type locality: 35 m from Wat Wanaram, Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia (06°20.275 N, 99°52.507 E.  
Reproductionoviparous (not imputed, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: ZRC 2.6774, adult male collected on 11 October 2008 by Daicus Belabut at 1030 hrs. Paratypes. Collection locality, date and time of collection of paratype LSUHC 9118 (female) are the same as that for the holotype. For paratypes ZRC 2.6775–76 (female and male, respectively) and LSUHC 9118 (female) the collection date was 13 October 2008. All paratypes were collected by Norhayati, A., Chan K. O., B. Trevertt, Muin M., Daicus B., and L. Grismer. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Cnemaspis monachorum differs from all other Southeast Asia species of Cnemaspis in having the unique combination of adult males reaching 31.4 mm SVL, adult females reaching 32.9 mm SVL; seven or eight supralabials; lateral postmentals separated at midline by a single smaller postmental; 5–7 infralabials; forearm, subtibials, ventrals, subcaudals, and dorsal tubercles smooth; 11–19 paravertebral tubercles whose rows begin one-third of the way down the body; tubercles on flanks very small and not linearly arranged; tubercles absent within lateral caudal furrow; ventrolateral, caudal tubercles present anteriorly; median, subcaudal row of enlarged, smooth scales; one or two postcloacal tubercles; femoral pores absent; three contiguous, precloacal, pore-bearing scales; subtibials much larger than dorsal tibials; no enlarged, submetatarsal scales; 25–27 subdigital lamellae on fourth toe; gravid females carry only one egg; mental scale yellow; dark, midgular line; no distinct, large, dark spots on neck; no dark shoulder patch enclosing ocelli; no light, postscapular band or postscapular spots; no white markings on flanks; no distinct, alternating dark and light, caudal bands; subcaudal region pigmented, not immaculate. These differences are summarized across all other Cnemaspis in Grismer et al. 2008a (Table 1) and Grismer et al. 2014 (Table 6). 
CommentAbundance: only known from its original description (Meiri et al. 2017).

Distribution: See map in Grismer et al. 2014: 18 (Fig. 4). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet monachorum is derived from the Latin masculine monachus meaning monk and the plural genitive –orum to honor the monks at Wat Wanaram who not only graciously allowed us to hunt through their homes and caves throughout the day and night but gave us advice as to where to look. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; & EVAN S. H. QUAH 2019. An updated and annotated checklist of the lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, and their adjacent archipelagos. Zootaxa 4545 (2): 230–248 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; MONTRI SUMONTHA, MICHAEL COTA, JESSE L. GRISMER, PERRY L. WOOD, JR., OLIVIER S. G. PAUWELS & KIRATI KUNYA 2010. A revision and redescription of the rock gecko Cnemaspis siamensis (Taylor 1925) (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Peninsular Thailand with descriptions of seven new species. Zootaxa 2576: 1–55 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; NORHAYATI AHMAD, CHAN KIN ONN, DAICUS BELABUT, MUIN, M. A., PERRY L. WOOD, JR, & JESSE L. GRISMER 2009. Two new diminutive species of Cnemaspis Strauch 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 2019: 40-56 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L. 2011. Lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and their adjacent archipelagos. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 728 pp. [review in Herp. Rev. 43: 155] - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; P. L. WOOD, JR., SHAHRUL ANUAR, H. R. DAVIS, A. J. COBOS & M. L. MURDOCH 2016. A new species of karst forest Bent-toed Gecko (genus Cyrtodactylus Gray) not yet threatened by foreign cement companies and a summary of Peninsular Malaysia’s endemic karst forest herpetofauna and the need for its conservation. Zootaxa 4061 (1): 001–017 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; PERRY JR L. WOOD, SHAHRUL ANUAR, AWAL RIYANTO, NORHAYATI AHMAD, MOHD A. MUIN, MONTRI SUMONTHA, JESSE L. GRISMER, CHAN KIN ONN, EVAN S. H. QUAH, OLIVIER S. A. PAUWELS 2014. Systematics and natural history of Southeast Asian Rock Geckos (genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) with descriptions of eight new species from Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Zootaxa 3880 (1): 001–147 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Nguyen, H.N., Hung, C., Yang, M. et al. 2020. Sympatric competitors have driven the evolution of temporal activity patterns in Cnemaspis geckos in Southeast Asia. Sci Rep 10: 27 - get paper here
  • QUAH, EVAN S. H.; PERRY L. JR. WOOD, M.S. SHAHRUL ANUAR, MOHD ABDUL MUIN 2020. A new species of Cnemaspis Strauch 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Langkawi Archipelago, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia with an updated checklist of the herpetofauna of Tuba Island. Zootaxa 4767 (1): 138–160 - get paper here
  • WOOD, PERRY JR. L.; EVAN S.H. QUAH, SHAHRUL ANUAR M.S., MOHD ABDUL MUIN 2013. A new species of lowland karst dwelling Cnemaspis Strauch 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from northwestern Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 3691 (5): 538–558 - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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