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Cnemaspis tapanuli ISKANDAR, MCGUIRE & AMARASINGHE, 2017

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common Names 
SynonymCnemaspis tapanuli ISKANDAR, MCGUIRE & AMARASINGHE 2017 
DistributionIndonesia (North Sumatra)

Type locality: Bohorok, Bukit Lawang Forest, Tapanuli Utara, North Sumatra, Indonesia, 85– 413 m elevation (3°31’N, 98°08’E)  
Reproductionoviparous (manual imputation, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: MZB 2240, Male, SVL 31.7 mm, collected on 18 June 1975 by H. K. Voris. Paratype. Female, MZB 2241, SVL 32.1 mm, bears the same data as the holotype. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Cnemaspis tapanuli sp. nov. differs from all other Southeast Asian diminutive Cnemaspis in having the unique combination of a maximum SVL of 32.1 mm; each postmental bounded by three scales; dorsal scales keeled; four spine-like tubercles on flank; gular scales slightly keeled; pectoral scales keeled and abdominal scales smooth; ventral scales of thigh smooth; four precloacal pores; 4 or 5 femoral pores on each side; subcaudals smooth, scales on median row enlarged and smooth; six supralabials; 18 lamellae under fourth toe.
Cnemaspis tapanuli sp. nov. is most similar to C. minang, but it can be distinguished from this species (characters in parentheses) by having subcaudals smooth (keeled) and a pale vertebral stripe (no vertebral stripe).
CommentHabitat: on tree buttresses or among leaf litter between tree buttresses during daytime. Several specimens were observed between ground level and 1 m in height.

Abundance: only known from its original description (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet refers to the northern Sumatra, also known as Tapanuli, signifying a beautiful beach (tapian nan uli) or coastal area (of Toba Lake), formed here as an invariable noun in apposition. 
  • Iskandar, Djoko T.; Jimmy A. McGuire, and A. A. Thasun Amarasinghe 2017. Description of Five New Day Geckos of Cnemaspis kandiana Group (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from Sumatra and Mentawai Archipelago, Indonesia. Journal of Herpetology 51 (1): 142-153 - get paper here
  • LEE, JUSTIN L.; ARYEH H. MILLER, GEORGE R. ZUG, DANIEL G. MULCAHY 2019. The discovery of Rock Geckos Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) in the Tanintharyi Region, Myanmar with the description of two new species. Zootaxa 4661 (1): 040–064 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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