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Cnemidophorus cryptus COLE & DESSAUER, 1993

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Cryptic Racerunner
Portuguese: Calango, Calango-Listrado, Calango-Verde, Lagarto, Violeiro 
SynonymCnemidophorus cryptus COLE & DESSAUER 1993
“Cnemidophorus” cryptus — REEDER et al. 2002: 25
Cnemidophorus cryptus — HARVEY et al. 2012 
DistributionSE Venezuela, N Brazil (Pará, ESPÍRITO SANTO, RIO DE JANEIRO, Amazonas, Roraima, Pará, and Amapá), S Suriname, S French Guiana

Type locality: Venezuela: Bolívar: Icabaru  
ReproductionParthenogenetic species. See also C. lemniscatus. ‘‘Cnemidophorus’’ cryptus is a diploid clonal parthenogen of hybrid origin (Dessauer and Cole, 1989; Sites et al., 1990). Two clones probably originated from separate F1 hybrid zygotes (Cole and Dessauer, 1993), although it is not known whether these were produced by the same individual parents or in the same clutch of eggs. The current working hypothesis is that ‘‘C.’’ gramivagus and ‘‘C.’’ lemniscatus are the two ancestral species (Cole and Dessauer, 1993). 
TypesHolotype: AMNH 135089, female 
CommentGroup: member of the lemniscatus group, see C. lemniscatus for details.

Distribution: See map in Morato et al. 2014: 56. Not yet found in Guyana, although possibly there (Cole et al. 2013: 471, Oliveira et al. 2015).

Martins et al. 2021 identified 2 sister clades of C. cryptus that may represent new species. 
  • Avila-Pires, Teresa C.S.; Kleiton R. Alves-Silva, Laís Barbosa, Fabrício S. Correa, Jorge F. A. Cosenza, Ana Paula V. Costa-Rodrigues, Aurea A. Cronemberger, Marinus S. Hoogmoed, Geraldo R. Lima-Filho, Adriano O. Maciel, Alexandre F. R. Missassi, Lyw 2018. Changes in Amphibian and Reptile Diversity Over Time in Parque Estadual do Utinga, a Protected Area Surrounded by Urbanization. Herpetology Notes 11: 499-512 - get paper here
  • Cole C J; Dessauer H C 1993. Unisexual and bisexual whiptail lizards of the Cnemidophorus lemniscatus complex (Squamata: Teiidae) of the Guiana Region, South America, with descriptions of new species. American Museum Novitates 3081: 1-30 - get paper here
  • Colli, G.R. et al. 2003. A critically endangered new species of Cnemidophorus (Squamata, Teiidae) from a Cerrado enclave in southwestern Amazonia, Brazil. Herpetologica 59 (1): 76-88 - get paper here
  • Dessauer, H. C., and C. J. Cole 1989. Diversity between and within nominal forms of unisexual teiid lizards. In R.M. Dawley and J.P. Bogart (editors), Evolution and ecology of unisexual vertebrates. New York State Museum Bulletin 466: 49–71.
  • Gardner, T.A., Ribeiro Junior, M.A., BarlowJ., Avila-Pires, T.C.S., Hoogmoed, M.S. & Peres, C. 2007. The Value of Primary, Secondary, and Plantation Forests for a Neotropical Herpetofauna. Conservation Biology 21 (3): 775–787 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Hamdan, B.; D.P. Coelho; A.B. D’Angiolella; E.J.R. Dias; R.M. Lira-da-Silva. 2013. The Reptile Collection of the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Brazil. Check List 9 (2):257-262 - get paper here
  • HARVEY, MICHAEL B.; GABRIEL N. UGUETO & RONALD L. GUTBERLET, Jr. 2012. Review of Teiid Morphology with a Revised Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Teiidae (Lepidosauria: Squamata). Zootaxa 3459: 1–156 - get paper here
  • Martins, L. F., Choueri, E. L., Oliveira, A. F., Domingos, F. M., Caetano, G. H., Cavalcante, V. H., ... & Werneck, F. P. 2021. Whiptail lizard lineage delimitation and population expansion as windows into the history of Amazonian open ecosystems. Systematics and Biodiversity, 1-19 - get paper here
  • Morato, S.A.A.; Calixto, P.O.; Mendes, L.R.; Gomes, R.; Galatti, U.; Trein, F.L.; Oliveira, F.S.; Ferreira, G.N. 2014. Guia fotográfico de identificação da herpetofauna da Floresta Nacional de Saracá-Taquera, Estado do Pará. Curitiba: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A.; 213 p. - get paper here
  • Morato, Sérgio Augusto Abrahão; Guilherme Nunes Ferreira; Michela Rossane Cavilha Scupino (eds.) 2018. Herpetofauna da Amazônia Central: Estudos na FLONA de Saracá-Taquera. Curitiba, Pr: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas, Pa: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A., 2018.<br />210p. - get paper here
  • Oliveira, Jane C. F., Juliane Ribeiro, Gisele Winck, Carlos Frederico Duarte Rocha, Edicarlos Pralon, Marcélia Basto Silva and Teresa C. S. Ávila-Pires. 2015. Geographic Distribution: Cnemidophorus cryptus. Herpetological Review 46 (1): 58-59 - get paper here
  • REEDER, T.W.; CHARLES J. COLE AND HERBERT C. DESSAUER 2002. Phylogenetic Relationships of Whiptail Lizards of the Genus Cnemidophorus (Squamata: Teiidae): A Test of Monophyly, Reevaluation of Karyotypic Evolution, and Review of Hybrid Origins. American Museum Novitates 3365: 1-64 - get paper here
  • RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR, MARCO A., SILVANA AMARAL 2016. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. III. Anguidae, Scincidae, Teiidae. Zootaxa 4205 (5): 401–430 - get paper here
  • Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A. & Silvana Amaral 2016. Diversity, distribution, and conservation of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Biodiversity, 2:1, 195-421 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Rocha,C.F.D. et al. 2000. New Cnemidophorus (Squamata: Teiidae) from coastal Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil. Copeia 2000 (2): 501-509 - get paper here
  • Sites, J.W. et al. 1990. The evolutionary history of parthenogentic Cnemidophorus lemniscatus (Sauria: Teiidae) I. Evidence for a hybrid origin. Evolution 44: 906-921 - get paper here
  • Vaz-Silva, W.; RM Oliveira, AFN Gonzaga, KC Pinto, FC Poli, TM Bilce, M Penhacek, L Wronski, JX Martins, TG Junqueira, LCC, Cesca VY, Guimarães RD. Pinheiro 2015. Contributions to the knowledge of amphibians and reptiles from Volta Grande do Xingu, northern Brazil Braz. J. Biol., 75 (3) (suppl.): S205-S218 - get paper here
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