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Colobosaura kraepelini (WERNER, 1910)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Gymnophthalminae), Iphisini, Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Chaco Colobosaura 
SynonymPerodactylus kraepelini WERNER 1910: 32
Colobosaura kraepelini — AMARAL 1933: 71
Colobosaura kraepelini — CACCIALI et al. 2017 
DistributionParaguay (humid Chaco)

Type locality: originally Puerto Max, Paraguay; neotype locality: 2.5 km E of Altos (25.2588°S, 57.2850°W, ca 280 m asl), Cordillera Department, Paraguay.  
TypesNeotype: SMF 101370; Holotype: ZMH (lost fide Hallermann) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Colobosaura kraepelini differs from the other species of the family Gymnophthalmidae except for C. modesta, by a combination of the following characters: limbs short but well developed; Finger I vestigial, not clawed; dorsal and lateral body scales keeled; four longitudinal series of ventral scales; prefrontal present; occipital present; two pairs of chin shields. Colobosaura kraepelini differs from C. modesta by having two mid-central rows of immaculate scales (vs. four immaculate ventral rows in C. modesta); flanks completely dark (Fig. 3) (vs. clear mottling in that area in C. modesta, Fig. 4); and gular shields profusely suffused with dark reaching the midline (vs. dark mottling restricted to the external edge of the shields, Fig. 5).
CommentSynonymy: the status of Perodactylus kraepelini remained unclear as the type (and sole specimen) appears to be lost. Both Amaral 1933 as well as Rodrigues et al. 2007 believe that it is a synonym of C. modesta. See also VANZOLINI & RAMOS 1977 who considered the status of kraepelini as unclear. However, Cacciali & Köhler 2017 designated a neotype and revalidated the species.

Habitat: Humid Chaco. The environment is basically a savanna composed of palms (Copernicia alba), native bunch grasses, and scattered islands of semideciduous temperate forest. The area is adapted to periodical floods from the Paraguay River. The locality of Puerto Max (former type locality of C. kraepelini) consists of a small village and cattle farm with intense anthropic pressure. 
  • Amaral, A. do 1933. Estudos sobre Lacertilios neotropicos. I. novos generos e especies de largartos do Brasil. Mem. Inst. Butantan 7 [1932]: 51-75 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Cacciali P, Martínez N, Köhler G 2017. Revision of the phylogeny and chorology of the tribe Iphisini with the revalidation of Colobosaura kraepelini Werner, 1910 (Reptilia, Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae). ZooKeys 669: 89-105. - get paper here
  • Werner,F. 1910. Über neue oder seltene Reptilien des Naturhistorischen Museums in Hamburg. ii. Eidechsen. Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst., vol. 27 (1909), suppl. no. 2, 1910, pp. 1-46; reprinted: 1910, Mitteil. Naturhist. Mus. Hamburg, vol. 27: 205-) - get paper here
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