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Conolophus subcristatus (GRAY, 1831)

IUCN Red List - Conolophus subcristatus - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaIguanidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Galapagos Land Iguana 
SynonymAmb. [lyrhynchus] subcristatus GRAY 1831: 6
Amblyrhynchus Demarlii DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 197
Hypsilophus (Conolophus) demarlii — FITZINGER 1843: 55
Trachycephalus subcristatus — GRAY 1845: 188
Conolophus subcristatus — STEINDACHNER 1876
Conolophus subcristatus — BOULENGER 1885: 187
Conolophus subcristatus pictus ROTHSCHILD & HARTERT 1899: 102
Conolophus subcristatus— SWASH & STILL 2000 
DistributionGalapagos (James = Santiago, Indefatigable = Santa Cruz, Albermarle = Isabella, Narborough = Fernandina, South Seymour) (belongs politically to Ecuador)

Type locality: Galápagos?  
ReproductionAmblyrhynchus cristatus, Conolophus subcristatus and Conolophus marthae can hybridize and produce viable offspring (Tzika et al. 2008). 
TypesHolotype: unlocated (fide ETHERIDGE 1982) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): differs from all other iguanid genera in possessing the following combination of character states: a) lateral crests of premaxillary incisive process large and pierced or notched by foramina for maxillary arteries, b) crista cranii of frontal projects anteriorly forming a step rather than a smooth curve where it meets the medial edge of prefrontal at dorsal margin of orbitonasal fenestra, c) supratemporals relatively small, extending one-half or less the distance across posterior temporal fossa, d) ectopterygoid contacts the palatine near the posteromedial corner of the suborbital fenestra, e) labial process of coronoid very large, extending more than two-thirds the way down the lateral surface of the mandible in large specimens, f) pterygoid teeth usually absent, g) foramina in ventral surface of second sacral pleurapophyses usually absent, replaced by open grooves, g) subclavian arteries not covered ventrally by the rectus capitis anterior muscle (John Iverson et al., pers. comm.). 
CommentType species: Amblyrhynchus Demarlii DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837 is the type species of the genus Conolophus FITZINGER 1843. 
References
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  • TZIKA, A.C., ROSA, S.F.P., FABIANI, A., SNELL, H.L., SNELL, H.M., MARQUEZ, C., TAPIA, W., RASSMANN, K., GENTILE, G. and MILINKOVITCH, M.C. 2008. Population genetics of Galápagos land iguana (genus Conolophus) remnant populations. Molecular Ecology, 17: 4943-4952 - get paper here
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