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Conopsis megalodon (TAYLOR & SMITH, 1942)

IUCN Red List - Conopsis megalodon - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: San Felipe Ground Snake
S: Toluqueña de Carlos San Felipe 
SynonymToluca megalodon TAYLOR & SMITH 1942
Toluca megalodon — LINER 1994
Toluca conica TAYLOR & SMITH 1942
Toluca conica — LINER 1994
Conopsis conica — GOYENECHEA & FLORES-VILLELA 2002
Conopsis megalodon — GOYENECHEA & FLORES-VILLELA 2002
Conophis conica — CASAS-ANDREU et al. 2004: 387 (in error)
Conopsis megalodon — GOYENECHEA & FLORES-VILLELA 2006
Conopsis megalodon — WALLACH et al. 2014: 181 
DistributionMexico (Sierra Madre del Sur in the states of Guerrero and Oaxaca), elevation from 1730 to 3200 m.

conica: Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca)

Type locality: Cerro San Felipe, Oaxaca.  
TypesHolotype: INHS (= UIMNH) 25077 (23540), formerly EHT-HMS 23640; (fide PHILLIPS 2003) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: This snake is characterized by the following combination of characters: fused prefrontals and internasals; 3 upper labials before eye; brown or reddish dorsal coloration with a vertebral line of hexagonal spots, and tessellated sides. Ventrally it is yellowish with no spots or marks. It differs from C. nasus, the only species with which it could be mistaken, by the reddish-brown dorsal coloration, its smaller body size (SVL: 107–250 mm in C. megalodon, and 100–320 mm in C. nasus), and by its distributional range, restricted to the highlands of the Sierra Madre del Sur in Guerrero and Oaxaca, which does not overlap with C. nasus. 
CommentToluca has been synonymized with Conopsis (Goyenechea & Flores 2002). Toluca conica has been synonymized with C. megalodon by GOYENECHEA & FLORES-VILLELA 2006. 
  • Canseco-Márquez, L., & Gutiérrrez-Mayén, M.G. 2010. Anfibios y reptiles del Valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán. Comisión Nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad, México D.F., Mexico, 302 pp - get paper here
  • Casas-Andreu, G., F.R. Méndez-De la Cruz and X. Aguilar-Miguel. 2004. Anfibios y Reptiles; pp. 375–390, in A.J.M. García-Mendoza, J. Ordoñez and M. Briones-Salas (ed.). Biodiversidad de Oaxaca. Instituto de Biología, UNAM-Fondo Oaxaqueño para la Conservación de la Naturaleza-World Wildlife Fund, México, D. F.
  • Flores V., Mendoza Q. & González P. 1995. Recopilación de claves para la determinación de amphibios y reptiles de México. Publ. Espec. Mus. Zool. (UNAM), no. 10
  • Goyenechea, Irene & Flores-Villela, Oscar 2002. Taxonomic status of the snake genera Conopsis and Toluca (Colubridae). Journal of Herpetology 36 (1): 92-95 - get paper here
  • GOYENECHEA, IRENE & OSCAR FLORES-VILLELA 2006. Taxonomic summary of Conopsis, Günther, 1858 (Serpentes: Colubridae). Zootaxa 1271: 1–27 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Illescas-Aparicio, M., Clark-Tapia, R., González-Hernández, A., Vásquez-Díaz, Pedro R. & Aguirre-Hidalgo, V. 2016. Diversidad y riqueza herpetofaunística asociada al bosque de manejo forestal y áreas de cultivo, en Ixtlán de Juárez, Oaxaca. Acta Zoológica Mexicana (n.s.) 32(3): 359-369
  • Martín-Regalado, N.; M. C. Lavariega, R. M. Gómez–Ugalde & C. Rodríguez–Pérez 2016. Anfibios y reptiles de la sierra de Cuatro Venados, Oaxaca, México. Arxius de Miscel·lània Zoològica, 14 (2016): 217–232 - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62 - get paper here
  • Palacios-Aguilar, Ricardo & OSCAR FLORES-VILLELA 2018. An updated checklist of the herpetofauna from Guerrero, Mexico. Zootaxa 4422 (1): 1-24 - get paper here
  • Phillips, C.A. 2003. HERPETOLOGICAL TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY: AN UPDATE TO THE PRIMARY TYPES. [type catalogue] University of Illinois Museum of Natural History, 17 pp.
  • Taylor, Edward H. & Smith,H.M. 1942. The snake genera Conopsis and Toluca. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 28 (15): 325-363 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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