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Contomastix lacertoides (DUMÉRIL & BIBRON, 1839)

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Bibron's Whiptail
Portuguese: Lagartixa-Listrada, Lagartixa-Verde, Tiú-da-Areia, Lagartinho-Listrado-da-Restinga 
SynonymCnemidophorus lacertoides DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 134
Cnemidophorus lacertinoides — GRAY 1845: 22 (in error for lacertoides)
Cnemidophorus grandensis COPE 1871: 158
Cnemidophorus lacertoides — BOULENGER 1886: 427
Ameiva lacertoides — BURT
Cnemidophorus lacertoides — GALLARDO 1966: 24
Cnemidophorus lacertoides — PETERS et al. 1970: 93
Cnemidophorus lacertoides — MASLIN & SECOY 1986
Cnemidophorus lacertoides — CEI 1993
Cnemidophorus lacertoides — DIRKSEN & DE LA RIVA 1999
Cnemidophorus charrua CABRERA & CARREIRA 2009
Contomastix charrua — HARVEY et al. 2012 (fide BORTEIRO et al. 2013)
Contomastix charrua — CARREIRA et al. 2012
Contomastix lacertoides — HARVEY et al. 2012
Cnemidophorus lacertoides — AVILA et al. 2013 
DistributionUruguay, S Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul), Argentina (Achiras, Córdoba; Entre Rios [HR 31: 52], Buenos Aires [HR 32: 275]), Bolivia (Cochabamba, Santa Cruz)

Type locality: Montevideo, Uruguay.

charrua: Uruguay (Rocha); Type locality: Uruguay: Departamento Rocha: Cabo Polonio (34º 24' 21" S; 53º 46' 57" W). Holotype. MNHN 03423. Adult male. February 3, 1977; F. Achaval, col.  
TypesHolotype: unlocated
Syntype: ANSP 9553; Brazil, Rio Grande [Cnemidophorus grandensis]
Holotype: MNHN 03423 (Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Montevideo, Uruguay), paratypes: MNHN 03422 and 03424; ZVC-R 1856 and 1865 [charrua] 
CommentSynonymy: Closely related to C. leachei. PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS (1970) listed leachi as synonym of lacertoides. Synonymy after CEI 1993. Cabrera et al. 2019 listed C. charrua as valid but considered it as “probably extinct”.

Group: founding member of the lacertoides group (Cei, 1993) that can be distinguished from the other groups of Cnemidophorus by their suborbital semicircles lacking granules, a tongue that is bilobed posteriorly (instead of basally as in other species) (see Cei, 1993), and 10 longitudinal rows of ventral scales (Dies et al., 2002, Cabrera and Carreira, 2009). 
  • AVILA, LUCIANO JAVIER; LORENA ELIZABETH MARTINEZ & MARIANA MORANDO 2013. Checklist of lizards and amphisbaenians of Argentina: an update. Zootaxa 3616 (3): 201–238 - get paper here
  • Borteiro, Claudio; FRANCISCO KOLENC, CARLOS PRIGIONI, MARIANA L. LYRA, DIEGO BALDO 2013. A lost species or the loss of stripes? The case of Contomastix lizards from Cabo Polonio, Uruguay, with observations on C. lacertoides (Duméril & Bibron) and Cnemidophorus grandensis Cope (Squamata, Teiidae). Zootaxa 3620 (2): 245–259 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1886. A synopsis of the reptiles and batrachians of the province Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 18: 423-445 - get paper here
  • Burt, C. E. 1931. A study of the teiid lizards of the genus Cnemidophorus with special reference to their phylogenetic relationships. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 154: 286 pp. - get paper here
  • Cabrera, Mario R. & Carreira, S. 2009. A new, but probably extinct, species of Cnemidophorus (Squamata, Teiidae) from Uruguay. The Herpetological Journal 19: 97–105 - get paper here
  • Cabrera, Mario R.; Santiago Carreira, Diego O. Di Pietro & Paula C. Rivera 2019. A new species of Contomastix (Squamata, Teiidae) supported by total evidence, with remarks on diagnostic characters defining the genus. The Herpetological Journal 29 (1): 23-36 - get paper here
  • Carreira, S.; Brazeiro, A.; Camargo, A.; da Rosa, I.; Canavero, A. & Maneyro, M. 2012. DIVERSITY OF REPTILES OF URUGUAY: KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION GAPS. Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2a época) 21 (1-2): 9-29 - get paper here
  • Cei J M. Martori R A. 1991. A New Species of Cnemidophorus of the lacertoides species group from the eastern Sierras de Cordoba, Central Argentina (Lacertilia, Teiidae). Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 9 (1): 33-38.
  • Cei J M. Scrocchi G. 1991. A poorly known and discussed species, Cnemidophorus leachei Peracca 1897, and general remarks on the genus Cnemidophorus in Argentina (Lacertilia, Teiidae). Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 9 (1): 233-244.
  • Cei, J. M. 1993. Reptiles del noroeste, nordeste y este de la Argentina. Museo Regionale Sci. Naturale Torino, Monografie 14: 1-949
  • Cole, Charles J.;McCoy, Clarence J.;Achaval, Federico 1979. Karyotype of a South American teiid lizard, Cnemidophorus lacertoides. American Museum Novitates (2671): 1-5 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1870. Seventh contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 11: 147-169 [1869] - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol. 5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Feltrim, A.C. 2003. Dimorfismo sexual em Cnemidophorus lacertoides (Squamata, Teiidae) do sul da América do Sul. Phyllomedusa 1 (2): 75-80 [2002] - get paper here
  • Gallardo, Jose M. 1966. Liolaemus lentus nov. Sp. (Iguanidae) de la Pampa y Algunas observaciones sobre los saurios de picha provincia Argentina y del oeste de Buenos Aires. Neotropica 12 (37): 15-29
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • HARVEY, MICHAEL B.; GABRIEL N. UGUETO & RONALD L. GUTBERLET, Jr. 2012. Review of Teiid Morphology with a Revised Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Teiidae (Lepidosauria: Squamata). Zootaxa 3459: 1–156 - get paper here
  • Maslin, T. & Secoy, D.M. 1986. A checklist of the lizard genus Cnemidophorus (Teiidae). Contr. Zool. Univ. Colorado Mus. 1: 1-60
  • Milstead, William W. 1961. Notes on Teiid lizards in southern Brazil. Copeia 1961 (4): 493-495 - get paper here
  • Prigioni, C.; C. Borteiro; F. Kolenc. 2011. Amphibia and Reptilia, Quebrada de los Cuervos, Departamento de Treinta y Tres, Uruguay. Check List 7 (6): 763-767 - get paper here
  • REEDER, T.W.; CHARLES J. COLE AND HERBERT C. DESSAUER 2002. Phylogenetic Relationships of Whiptail Lizards of the Genus Cnemidophorus (Squamata: Teiidae): A Test of Monophyly, Reevaluation of Karyotypic Evolution, and Review of Hybrid Origins. American Museum Novitates 3365: 1-64 - get paper here
  • Rocha,C.F.D. et al. 2000. New Cnemidophorus (Squamata: Teiidae) from coastal Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil. Copeia 2000 (2): 501-509 - get paper here
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