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Copeoglossum redondae HEDGES & CONN, 2012

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Mabuyinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Redonda Skink 
SynonymCopeoglossum redondae HEDGES & CONN 2012: 82
Mabuya mabouya mabouya — DUNN, 1936:544 (part)
Mabuya mabouia — BARBOUR, 1937: 147 (part)
Mabuya mabouya mabouya — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS, 1970: 200 (part)
Mabuya mabouya mabouya — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS, 1975: 141 (part)
Mabuya mabouya mabouya — MACLEAN et al., 1977: 38 (part)
Mabuya mabouya mabouya — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON, 1988: 150 (part)
Mabuya mabouya mabouya — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON, 1991: 457 (part)
Mabuya bistriata — POWELL et al., 1996: 82 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — MAYER & LAZELL, 2000: 883 (part)
Mabuya mabouya — BREUIL, 2002: 267 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — HENDERSON & POWELL, 2009: 293 

Type locality: Redonda  
TypesHolotype: ANSP 9517, an adult female, collected on Redonda in 1863–1873 (see Remarks), and donated to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia by Dr. Hendrik van Rijgersma. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Copeoglossum redondae sp. nov. is characterized by (1) maximum SVL in males, not available; (2) maximum SVL in females, 100.1 mm (only specimen); (3) snout width, 2.89% SVL; (4) head length, 16.1% SVL; (5) head width, 14.1% SVL; (6) ear length, 2.42% SVL; (7) toe-IV length, 9.43% SVL; (8) prefrontals, two; (9) supraoculars, four; (10) supraciliaries, five (50%), six (50%); (11) frontoparietals, two; (12) supralabial below the eye, five (50%), six (50%); (13) nuchal rows, one; (14) dorsals, 53; (15) ventrals, 59; (16) dorsals + ventrals, 112; (17) midbody scale rows, 30; (18) finger-IV lamellae, 14; (19) toe-IV lamellae, 15; (20) finger-IV + toe-IV lamellae, 29; (21) supranasal contact, N; (22) prefrontal contact, N; (23) supraocular-1/frontal contact, N; (24) parietal contact, N; (25) pale middorsal stripe, N; (26) dark dorsolateral stripe, Y; (27) dark lateral stripe, Y; (28) pale lateral stripe, Y; and (29) palms and soles, dark (possibly darkened by preservative) (Tables 3–5).
Within the Genus Copeoglossum, C. redondae sp. nov. differs from all other species except C. nigropunctatum by having a larger auricular opening (ear length 2.42% SVL versus 1.02–2.19% in those other species). It differs from C. nigropunctatum by having a narrower frontonasal scale (frontonasal width/length 1.20 versus 1.30–2.03 in C. nigropunctatum) (Fig. 26), a shorter supraocular-2 scale (supraocular-2/supraocular-1 length ratio 0.58 in C. redondae sp. nov. versus 0.68–1.23 in C. nigropunctatum; Fig. 27), and supranasals not in contact (in contact in 94% of C. nigropunctatum). Copeoglossum redondae sp. nov. differs from C. arajara (Rebouças-Spieker 1981) in having more finger-IV + toe-IV lamellae (29 versus 26) and more supraciliaries (5–6 versus four, or rarely three or five, in C. arajara). Copeoglossum redondae sp. nov. differs from C. aurae sp. nov. in having broad contact between the first paired chin shields and infralabials (no contact in C. aurae sp. nov.) and a shorter toe-IV (9.43% SVL versus 10.1–12.7%). Copeoglossum redondae sp. nov. differs from C. margaritae sp. nov. in having a lower number of ventral scales (59 versus 66), a shorter supraocular-2 scale (supraocular-2/supraocular-1 length ratio 0.58 in C. redondae sp. nov. versus 0.75–0.88 in C. margaritae sp. nov.; Fig. 27), and a smaller body size (100 mm versus 121 mm maximum SVL). We place C. redondae sp. nov. in the genus Copeoglossum because it has diagnostic traits of that genus (see above), especially the separation of the parietal scales and low dorsal + ventral scale count. It also has dark dorsal spots (no dorsolateral stripes) and dark lateral stripes extending onto tail, both characteristics of the genus. 
CommentAbundance: only known from the type specimen (Meiri et al. 2017).

Conservation: extinct fide Chapple et al. 2020 (in prep.). 
EtymologyThe species name (redondae) is a feminine genitive singular noun and refers to the distribution of the species on the island of Redonda. 
  • Breuil, H. 2002. Histoire Naturelle des Amphibiens et Reptiles de l’Archipel Guadeloupéen: Guadeloupe, Saint-Martin, Saint-Barthélemy. Patrimoines naturels 54: 339 pp.
  • Dunn, Emmett Reid 1935. Notes on American Mabuyas. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 87: 533-560 - get paper here
  • Hedges, S.B. & Conn, C.E. 2012. A new skink fauna from Caribbean islands (Squamata, Mabuyidae, Mabuyinae). Zootaxa 3288: 1–244
  • Mayer,G.C. & Lazell,J. 2000. A new species of Mabuya (Sauria: Scincidae) from the British Virgin Islands. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 113 (4): 871-886 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Peters, James A. & Donoso-Barros, Roberto 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part II. Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 293 pp. - get paper here
  • Powell, R., R. W. Henderson, K. Adler, And H. A. Dundee. 1996. An annotated checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. In R. Powell and R. W. Henderson (eds.), Contributions to West Indian Herpetology: A Tribute to Albert Schwartz, p.51-93. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca (New York). Contributions to Herpetology, volume 12. [book review in Salamandra 36 (2): 136]
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1988. West Indian Amphibian and Reptiles: A Checklist. Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Contr. Biol. Geol. No. 74: 264 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and R. Thomas. 1975. A checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ. 1:1-216. - get paper here
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