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Corallus hortulana (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaBoidae (Boinae), Henophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Garden Tree Boa
G: Gartenboa
Portuguese: Boitinga, Cobra-de-Veado, Cobra-Veadeira, Jiboia-Branca, Salamanta, Suaçuboia, Suassuboia, Veadeira 
SynonymBoa hortulana LINNAEUS 1758: 215
Boa Enydris LINNAEUS 1758: 215
Vipera bitis LAURENTI 1768: 102
Vipera madarensis LAURENTI 1768: 102
Coluber madarensis — GMELIN 1788: 1092
Coluber bitis — GMELIN 1788: 1092
Boa Ambleocephala DONNDORFF 1798: 1798: 149
Boa merremi SCHNEIDER 1801: 259
Boa obtusiceps BECHSTEIN 1802: 46
Boa elegans DAUDIN 1803: 123
Corallus obtusirostris DAUDIN 1803: 259
Xiphosoma ornatum WAGLER 1824: 40
Xiphosoma dorsuale WAGLER 1824: 43
Xiphosoma hortulana — FITZINGER 1826: 883
[Xiphosoma] merremii — WAGLER 1830: 167
Boa modesta REUSS 1834: 129
Boa hortulana — SCHLEGEL 1837: 392
Corallus maculatus GRAY 1842: 42
Corallus hortulanus — GRAY 1842: 42
Corallus Cooki GRAY 1842: 42
Xiphosoma hortulanum — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1844: 545
Corallus hortulanus melanea GRAY 1849: 98
Xiphosoma ruschenbergerii COPE 1875: 129
Xiphosoma hortulanum — GARMAN 1887: 279
Corallus cookii — BOULENGER 1893: 99
Corallus hortulanus — BOULENGER 1893: 101
Boa ruschenbergii — STEJNEGER 1901: 184 (in errore)
Boa cooki — IHERING 1911: 317
Boa salmonidia BRICEÑO ROSSI 1934: 1141
Boa enydris enydris — STULL 1935: 388
Corallus enydris — FORCART 1951: 197
Corallus enydris enydris — FORCART 1951
Corallus enydris — GORMAN & GRESS 1970
Corallus enhydris enhydris — DUELLMAN 1978: 226
Corallus enydris — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Corallus enydris — FREIBERG 1982
Corallus enydris — HOOEGMOED & GRUBER 1983
Corallus enydris — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 597
Corallus enhydris enhydris — WELCH 1994: 17
Corallus enydris — HENDERSON & HEDGES 1995
Corallus enhydris — STARACE 1998: 97
Corallus hortulanus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 191
Corralus hortulanus — BAUER & GÜNTHER 2013 (in error)
Corallus hortulanus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 183
Corallus hortulatus — GUEDES et al. 2014
Corallus hortulanus — REYNOLDS & HENDERSON 2018: 18
Corallus hortulana — FRETEY 2019
Corallus hortulana — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionS Colombia (east of the Andes), S Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Sergipe, Ceará, Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, DF, Piauí, Acre, Pará, Pernambuco), Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia

Type locality: "America" [LINNAEUS 1758: 215], restricted to “cis-Andean South America” by Gonzalez et al. 2021.  
TypesLectotype: UUZM (given as UPSZTY) 77a, designated by Gonzalez et al. 2021. Note that ZMB 1526 was considered as holotype or iconotype by some authors, starting from Merrem 1790, 1821 (fide BAUER & GÜNTHER 2014)
Holotype: NRM (NHRM) Lin. 7 [Boa enydris]
Lectotype: ZSM1364/0,female [Xiphosoma dorsuale]
Holotype: ZSM 2694/0, juvenile [Xiphosoma ornatum] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Corallus hortulanus is distinguishable from other species in the complex by the maximum number of dorsal scale rows (almost always over 50 in hortulanus, always less than 50 in cooki, grenadensis, and ruschenbergerii). Populations of hortulanus with less than 50 dorsal scale rows occur in Guyana, Suriname, Bolivia, and Peru. In general, hortulanus has higher counts for meristic characters than other members of the complex. The shape of the main element in the dorsal pattern at midbody is more or less ellipsoidal, whereas it is a ragged hourglass in cooki and is usually spade-shaped in grenadensis [from HENDERSON 1997]. 
CommentSynonymy: Chippaux, 1986, has suggested that C. enydris is monotypic. STULL (1935) placed Boa grenadensis in synonymy with B. enydris cooki (= Corallus cookii). Corallus grenadensis has been resurrected from the synonymy of C. hortulanus (or C. cooki). Other synonyms partly after Hoogmoed & Gruber (1983) and McDiarmid et al. (1996).

Subspecies: Reynolds & Henderson 2018 do not recognize any subspecies.

Distribution: partly after AFB Araujo (pers. comm. 21 Jan 2013). Not on Trinidad or Tobago (Boos 2001). See map in Nogueira et al. 2019. Reports from the Caribbean are now assigned to C. cookii and C. grenadensis (Henderson 1997, Colston et al. 2013).

Type species: Corallus obtusirostris DAUDIN 1803 (= Boa hortulana LINNAEUS 1758: 215) is the type species of the genus Corallus DAUDIN 1803.

Habitat: fully arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
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