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Craspedocephalus andalasensis (DAVID, VOGEL, VIJAYAKUMAR & VIDAL, 2006)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Sumatran Palm Pit Viper 
SynonymTrimeresurus andalasensis DAVID, VOGEL, VIJAYAKUMAR & VIDAL 2006
Lachesis puniceus — HOLTZINGER-TENEVER 1917: 443
Lachesis puniceus — HOLTZINGER-TENEVER 1919: 89
Lachesis puniceus — SACKETT 1940: 3
Trimeresurus puniceus — MATSUI et al. 1984: 123
Trimeresurus puniceus — SUPRIATNA & SIDIK 1996: 241
Lachesis borneensis — BAUMANN 1913: 273 (non Atropophis borneensis PETERS 1872)
Trimeresurus borneensis — DAVID & VOGEL 1996: 165,
Trimeresurus borneensis — DE LANG 2003: 27
Trimeresurus borneensis — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004: 30
Trimeresurus (Craspedocephalus) andalasensis — DAVID et al. 2011
Craspedocephalus andalasensis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 187
Craspedocephalus andalasensis — MIRZA et al. 2023 
DistributionIndonesia (N Sumatra)

Type locality: “Nord-Sumatra, Atjeh,Tawar-See, Takengon,
1200 m ü.NN”, Lake Tawar, Takengon, Aceh Province,Sumatra Island, Indonesia, 1200 m elevation.  
TypesHolotype: SMF 22429, adult male, collected by H. R. Roomaaker, 1929. Paratypes: (n=6) INDONESIA. Sumatra Island. ANSP 21536 (female), “Blangbeke Dua”, now near Blangkejeren, Aceh Province, 1130 m; NMBE 1018070 (male), NMBE 1018071 (female), “Sumatra, Battak”, now Toba Massif, Sumatera Utara Province; PSGV 548 (female), Ketembe, Aceh Province; ZSM 17/1927, (female), “Gunung Rinsels, Sud. Dehli, Sumatra”, an unidentified mountain south of Medan, in Toba Massif, Sumatera Utara Province; ZMB 29641 (female), Padang Highlands, Province of Sumatera Barat. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A species of the genus Trimeresurus, endemic to Sumatra characterized by the combination of the following characters: (1) an overall brown coloration, with 17–25 darker crossbands, related to the sex: in males, background colour in various shades of dark greyish-brown with darker irregular dorsolateral blotches, with below, an irregular, elongated blotch of same colour; between the blotches, the background colour is often darker than on the sides of body, with scales heavily powdered with dark producing a confused but not lichen-like pattern; in females, pattern less contrasted but not distinctly paler than in males, in shades of dark yellow-ochre with darker blotches, without the dotted pattern, with broad darker edges and a wide lighter centre, producing a “saddle-like” pattern; males have a more complex pattern, but are not darker than females; (2) a distinctly projected and raised snout, strongly obliquely truncated when seen from the side, subrectangular seen from above; (3) internasals projected, strongly spatulate and bilobate; (4) 19 or more often 21 MSR, smooth or weakly keeled; (5) 1st supralabial distinct from nasal; (6) 2nd supralabials bordering the whole of the anterior margin of the loreal pit; (7) 1 to 3 narrow supraoculars, flat or barely convex; (8) a low number of VEN: 144–149 in males and 151–156 in females; (9) occipital and temporal scales smooth or weakly keeled; and (10) IL of the first pair not in contact each with the other [from DAVID et al. 2006]. 

Habitat: partly arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
EtymologyNamed after the Latin genitive noun forged on Andalas, the ancient name of Sumatra.  
  • DAVID, PATRICK; GERNOT VOGEL & ALAIN DUBOIS 2011. On the need to follow rigorously the Rules of the Code for the subsequent designation of a nucleospecies (type species) for a nominal genus which lacked one: the case of the nominal genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa 2992: 1–51 - get paper here
  • David, Patrick; Vogel, Gernot; Vijayakumar, S.P.; Vidal, Nicolas 2006. A revision of the Trimeresurus puniceus – complex (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae) based on morphological and molecular data. Zootaxa 1293: 1-78 - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • TEYNIÉ, ALEXANDRE; PATRICK DAVID, & ANNEMARIE OHLER 2010. Note on a collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from Western Sumatra (Indonesia), with the description of a new species of the genus Bufo. Zootaxa 2416: 1–43 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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