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Crocodylus porosus SCHNEIDER, 1801

IUCN Red List - Crocodylus porosus - Least Concern, LR

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Higher TaxaCrocodylidae (Crocodylia, crocodiles)
Common NamesE: Saltwater crocodile
G: Leistenkrokodil 
SynonymCrocodylus natans MEYER 1795 (nomen oblitum)
Crocodilus porosus SCHNEIDER 1801: 159
Crocodilus oopholis SCHNEIDER 1801: 165
Crocodilus biporcatus CUVIER 1807: 48
Crocodilus biporcatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1836: 115
Crocodilus biporcatus raninus MÜLLER & SCHLEGEL 1844
Oopholis pondicherianus GRAY 1862: 268
Crocodilus porosus — DE ROOIJ 1915: 337
Crocodylus porosus australis DERANIYAGALA 1953
Crocodylus porosus minikanna DERANIYAGALA 1953
Crocodylus porosus porosus — WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977
Crocodylus porosus biporcatus — WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977
Crocodylus raninus — ROSS 1990
Crocodylus porosus — COX et al. 1998: 122
Crocodylus porosus — COGGER 2000: 175
Crocodylus raninus — MARTIN 2008
Crocodylus porosus — NGUYEN et al. 2009 
DistributionAustralia, Bangladesh, Brunei, Myanmar (= Burma), Cambodia, India (including Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands, Kerala), Indonesia (Java, Sulawesi, Komodo, Natuna islands), Malaysia, Palau (Caroline Islands) , Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Solomon Islands, Thailand, Vanuatu (Banks Islands), Nauru?, Micronesia, Vietnam.

Type locality: Unknown; designated as "Ceylon" (=Sri Lanka) by Mertens (1960: 271).

raninus: Borneo; Type locality: Borneo  
Reproductionoviparous. Crocodylus porosus hybridizes with C. siamensis (A. Britton, pers. comm., 6 Jan 2014, FitzSimmons et al. 2002). C. porosus has temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD): at at constant temperature of 32°C ~90% of hatchlings are male, at both cooler and warmer temperatures (<= 31 or >= 33°C), the ratio drops to less than 20% (Webb & Cooper-Preston 1989). 
TypesLectotype: ZMB 278 (designated by WERMUTH 1954, see also Mertens, 1960); Paralectotypes: ZFMK 40955-956, RMNH n = RMNH.RENA.37489.
Holotype: BMNH [Oopholis pondicherianus GRAY 1862]
Lectotype: RMNH.RENA.3219; paralectotype: RMNH p = RMNH.RENA.37493 [raninus] 
CommentSingle individuals can be found some distance from their usual range (e.g. Japan, islands in the Indian Ocean), as they can travel long distances (over a thousand km) by sea - barnacles have been found on the scales of a few stray individuals. This sea-faring ability probably helps to explain their wide distribution.

Distribution: extinct in China (Zhang et al, 1998)

Synonymy: Crocodylus raninus has been considered as a synonym of C. porosus (biporcatus), e.g. by Wermuth & Mertens 1977. Although it was revalidated by Ross 1990, its status remains unclear. Tyler 1991 (cited in Vitt et al. 2014) appears to consider it as extinct. In fact, Ross 1990 only shows skulls; there seems to be no recent observation of a living specimen. Brochu 2012 shows C. raninus as sister species of C. novaeguineae.

Subspecies: C. raninus has been considered as a subspecies of C. porosus but is now considered as valid species by certain authors.

Habitat: sometimes found in brackish waters and thus considered “partly marine”.

Hybridization: Crocodylus niloticus appears to hybridize with C. siamensis and C. porosus, at least in captivity. C. porosus also hybridizes with C. siamensis (Wei et al. 2022). 
EtymologyNamed after Greek porosis = a callosity and the Latin suffix -osus, meaning full of; a reference to the double row ofscaly humps on the upper surface of the snout. 
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