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Crotalus angelensis KLAUBER, 1963

IUCN Red List - Crotalus angelensis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Isla Angel Rattlesnake
G: Angel-Klapperschlange
S: Cascabel de Isla Angel de la Guarda 
SynonymCrotalus mitchellii angelensis KLAUBER 1963
Crotalus mitchellii angelensis — LINER 1994
Crotalus angelensis — GRISMER 1999
Crotalus mitchellii angelensis — BEAMAN & HAYES 2008
Matteoea angelensis — HOSER 2009
Crotalus angelensis — MEIK et al. 2015 
DistributionMexico (Isla Angel de la Guardia)

Type locality: "about 4 miles southeast of Refugio Bay, at 1500 feet elevation, Isla Angel de la Guarda, Gulf of California, Mexico (near 29°29 1/2' N, 113°33' W)."  
Reproductionovovivparous. 
TypesHolotype: SDNHM = SDSNH 51994; paratypes SDNHM = SDSNH 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A subspecies of Crotalus mitchelli differing from the other subspecies in its larger size, proportionately larger head in adults, smaller initial rattles, greater number of dorsal scale rows, higher number of ventral scutes, greater frequency of supraoculars with sutures, larger and fewer scales between the prenasals and rostral, and higher number of middorsal blotches on the body. In nearly all of these characters there is some overlapping with the mainland subspecies, but the differences are statistically significant (Klauber 1963: 75). 
CommentVenomous!

Nomenclature: Hoser’s 2009 classification and nomenclature has been rejected as unnecessary and unavailable by WÜSTER & BERNILS 2011.

Synonymy: Listed as a synonym of Crotalus mitchellii by WALLACH et al. 2014: 194 and Heimes 2016: 450.

Distribution: see map in Meik et al. 2015: Fig. 1. Populations from Isla Cabeza de Caballo have been split off as C. polisi MEIK et al. 2018. 
EtymologyNamed after the type locality. 
References
  • Beaman, K.R. & Hayes, W.K. 2008. Rattlesnakes: Research Trends and Annotated Checklist. In: Hayes et al. (eds), The biology of rattlesnakes. Loma Linda University Press, pp. 5-16
  • GARCÍA-PADILLA, ELI; JORGE H. VALDEZ VILLAVICENCIO, ANNY PERALTA GARCÍA 2018. Las Serpientes de Cascabel más allá del continente. Especies - get paper here
  • Gottscho, Andrew, Sam Murray, Heather Heinz and Julio A. Lemos-Espinal. 2014. Crotalus angelensis (Isla Ángel de la Guarda rattlesnake) diet and predation. Herpetological Review 45 (3): 514 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee. 1999. An evolutionary classification of reptiles on islands in the Gulf of California, México. Herpetologica 55 (4): 446-469 - get paper here
  • Hoser, R. 2009. A reclassification of the rattlesnakes; species formerly exclusively referred to the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus. Australasian J. Herpetol. 3: 1-21 - get paper here
  • Klauber, Laurence M. 1963. A new insular subspecies of the speckled rattlesnake. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 13: 73-80 - get paper here
  • Kwet, A. 2015. Gefleckte Klapperschlangen sind ein Artenkomplex. Reptilia (Münster) 20 (114): 6-7 - get paper here
  • Meik JM, Makowsky R. 2017. Minimum area thresholds for rattlesnakes and colubrid snakes on islands in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Ecol Evol. 2017;00:1–7 - get paper here
  • Meik JM, Streicher JW, Lawing AM, Flores-Villela O, Fujita MK 2015. Limitations of Climatic Data for Inferring Species Boundaries: Insights from Speckled Rattlesnakes. PLoS One 10 (6): e0131435; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0131435 - get paper here
  • Meik, Jesse M.; Sarah Schaack, Oscar Flores-Villela & Jeffrey W. Streicher 2018. Integrative taxonomy at the nexus of population divergence and speciation in insular speckled rattlesnakes. Journal of Natural History 52: 989-1016; DOI: 10.1080/00222933.2018.1429689 - get paper here
 
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