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Crotalus durissus LINNAEUS, 1758

IUCN Red List - Crotalus durissus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesCrotalus durissus cumanensis HUMBOLDT 1811
Crotalus durissus durissus (LINNAEUS 1758)
Crotalus durissus marajoensis (HOGE 1966)
Crotalus durissus ruruima (HOGE 1966)
Crotalus durissus terrificus (LAURENTI 1768)
Crotalus durissus trigonicus (HARRIS & SIMMONS 1978) 
Common NamesE: Cascabel Rattlesnake; Central American Rattlesnake
unicolor: Aruba Island Rattlesnake;
G: Cascabel-Tropische - Schauer-Klapperschlange
NL: Zuid-Amerikaanse Ratelslang, Surinamse ratelslang
E: Rupununi Savanna Rattlesnake [trigonicus]
Portuguese: Boicinim, Boicininga, Boiçununga, Boiquira, Cascabel, Cascavé, Cascavel, Cascavel-de-Quatro-Ventas, Cascavelha, Cobra-de-Chocalho, Cobra-de-Guizo, Cobra-do-Chocalho, Maracá, Maracaboia, Maracamboia, Surucucu-Cascavel 
SynonymCrotalus durissus LINNAEUS 1758: 214
Crotalus durissus — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 1
Crotalus durissus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1463
Crotalus pulvis DITMARS 1905 [1904]
Crotalus durissus durissus — KLAUBER 1952: 61
Crotalus durissus — LINER 1994
Crotalus durissus maricelae GARCÍA-PÉREZ 1995 (nom. nud.)
Crotalus durissus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 279
Crotalus durissus maricelae — QUIJADA-MASCAREÑAS & WÜSTER 2006
Caudisona durissus — HOSER 2009
Crotallus durissus — CONDEZ et al. 2009 (in error)
Crotalus durissus — WÜSTER & BERNILS 2011
Caudisona durissa — HAMDAN et al. 2012
Crotalus durissus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 189

Crotalus durissus cumanensis HUMBOLDT 1811
Crotalus cumanensis HUMBOLDT 1811: 6
Crotalus durissus cumanensis — HOGE 1966
Crotalus durissus cumanensis — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 76
Crotalus durissus cumanensis — KORNACKER 1997
Crotalus durissus cumanensis — ESQUEDA et al. 2001
Crotalus durissus cumanensis — QUIJADA-MASCAREÑAS & WÜSTER 2006
Crotalus durissus cumanensis — UGUETO & RIVAS 2010
Crotalus durissus cumanensis — CARBAJAL-MÁRQUEZ et al. 2020
Crotalus durissus cumanensis — REYES-VELASCO et al. 2022

Crotalus durissus dryinas LINNAEUS 1758
Crotalus dryinas LINNAEUS 1758: 214 (part.)
Crotalus durissus dryinas — HOGE 1966
Crotalus durissus dryinus — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980

Crotalus durissus marajoensis HOGE 1966
Crotalus durissus marajoensis HOGE 1966
Crotalus durissus marajoensis — QUIJADA-MASCAREÑAS & WÜSTER 2006
Crotalus durissus marajoensis — REYES-VELASCO et al. 2022

Crotalus durissus pifanorum SANDNER-MONTILLA 1980
Crotalus pifanorum SANDNER-MONTILLA 1980
Crotalus pifanorum — LANCINI & KORNACKER 1989: 293
Crotalus durissus pifanorum — KORNACKER 1999: 174
Crotalus durissus pifanorum — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004
Crotalus durissus pifanorum — QUIJADA-MASCAREÑAS & WÜSTER 2006

Crotalus durissus ruruima HOGE 1965
Crotalus durissus ruruima HOGE 1965
Crotalus terrificus ruruima — SANDNER-MONTILLA 1980
Crotalus durissus ruruima — QUIJADA-MASCAREÑAS & WÜSTER 2006
Crotalus durissus ruruima — SEÑARIS et al. 2009
Crotalus ruruima — VIANA et al. 2020
Crotalus durissus ruruima — REYES-VELASCO et al. 2022

Crotalus durissus cascavella WAGLER 1824: 60
Crotalus cascavella WAGLER 1824: 60 (fide WÜSTER et al. 2005)
Crotalus durissus cascavella — HOGE 1966
Crotalus durissus cascavella — FREITAS et al. 2016
Crotalus durissus cascavella — REYES-VELASCO et al. 2022

Crotalus durissus collilineatus AMARAL 1926
Crotalus terrificus var. collilineatus AMARAL 1926
Crotalus terrificus var. collirhombeatus AMARAL
Crotalus durissus collilineatus — HOGE 1966
Crotalus durissus collilineatus — REYES-VELASCO et al. 2022

Crotalus durissus terrificus (LAURENTI 1768)
Caudisona terrifica LAURENTI 1768
Crotalus terrificus — BOULENGER 1896
Crotalus terrificus — BARBOUR & COLE 1906: 153
Crotalus durissus terrificus — KLAUBER 1936
Crotalus terrificus terrificus — SERIÉ 1936
Crotalus durissus terrificus — BEEBE 1946: 51
Crotalus terrificus crotaminicus GONÇALVES 1956
Crotalus durissus terrificus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Crotalus durissus terrificus — CEI 1993
Crotalus durissus terrificus — LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999: 38
Crotalus terrificus — BÉRNILS et al. 2001
Crotalus durissus terrificus — WÜSTER et al. 2005
Crotalus durissus terrificus — SCROCCHI et al. 2006: 160
Crotalus durissus terrificus — CANO et al. 2015
Crotalus terrificus — VIANA et al. 2020
Crotalus durissus terrificus — REYES-VELASCO et al. 2022

Crotalus durissus trigonicus HARRIS & SIMMONS 1978
Crotalus durissus trigonicus HARRIS & SIMMONS 1978: 112 (nom. nud.)
Crotalus durissus trigonicus HARRIS & SIMMONS 1978: 306
Crotalus durissus trigonicus — QUIJADA-MASCAREÑAS & WÜSTER 2006
Crotalus durissus trigonicus — REYES-VELASCO et al. 2022 
DistributionBrazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Roraima, Amapá, Roraima, Goias, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, Sergipe and many others), Venezuela (Cojedes), Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, N
Argentina (Mendoza, La Pampa, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Fe, Córdoba, La Rioja, Catamarca, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán, Chaco, Formosa, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Misiones), Paraguay, Bolivia, Uruguay, Aruba I

durissus: Guyana

cascavella: Brazil (Maranhao, Ceara, Piaui, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Rio grande do Norte, Bahia)

collilineatus: Brazil (Mato Grosso, Goyas, Minas Gerais, NW Sao Paulo)

cumanensis: Venezuela, Colombia, maybe West Guyana, Isla Margarita.

dryinas: Brazil (Amapa), northern coast of the Guianas

cumanensis: Venezuela, NE Colombia

marajoensis: Brazil (Marajo)

ruruima: Venezuela, adjacent Brazil

terrificus: S Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina (Formosa etc.), Paraguay, Peru, Bolivia

trigonicus: Brazil (Roraima), SW Guyana

Type locality: “America”  
Reproductionovovivparous. Schuett et al. (1997) provide evidence for parthenogenesis in this C. d. unicolor. 
TypesNeotype: RMNH 12857, adult male, designated by Savage et al. (2005: 370).
Holotype: ZSM, uncatalogued specimen(s) (lost), “Habitat non rarus in campis provinciae Bahiae” [Brazil, former province of Bahia, part of the present state of Bahia] according to the original description and Vanzolini (1981), collected by Spix and Martius expedition to Brazil, 1817-1820 [cascavella]
Type: nondesignated, according to Klauber (1972:36) [cumanensis]
Holotype: IBSP (= IB) 17779 [marajoensis]
Holotype: MCZ 7044 [pulvis]
Holotype: AMNH 36056 [ruruima]
Neotype: IBSP (also as IB = Instituto Butantan) 22997, designated by Hoge (1966: 147); originally no type(s) indicated [terrificus]
Holotype: private collection, "RS 907 HSH/RSS in the authors' collection at the Natural History Society of Maryland." [trigonicus] 
CommentVenomous! This species causes most of the lethal snakebite accidents in Brazil.

Synonymy for terrificus after CEI 1993. MCDIARMID et al. (1999) list C. pifanorum as synonym of C. durissus. Esqueda et al. (2001) suggested that C. maricelae is a nomen nudum and that this population does not deserve recognition because all diagnostic characters fall within the variation range of C. d. cumanensis. La Marca and Soriano (2004) considered Crotalus maricelae a valid taxon, using the same characters mentioned in the original description. We follow Campbell and Lamar (2004) in considering this taxon a synonym of Crotalus durissus. RIVAS et al. 2012 consider C. vegrandis a full species mostly based on the following morphological differences: smaller length, peculiar colour pattern composed of gray and/or reddish brown ground colour with large white flecks distributed as irregular rings (vs rhomboidal blotches in C. durissus).

Species group: Crotalus durissus complex, which includes durissus, simus, culminatus, tzabcan, unicolor, vegrandis, ehecatl, and mictlantecuhtli (Reyes-Velasco et al. 2022).

Subspecies: Crotalus durissus culminatus (KLAUBER 1952) and Crotalus durissus tzabcan (KLAUBER 1952) have been re-assigned to C. simus by CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004. Crotalus durissus unicolor is considered a full species by most recent authors.

Distribution: Restricted to South America (Wallach et al. 2014, O. Flores-Villela, pers. comm., 21 June 2021), although the species has been reported from Central America by several authors. Not in Honduras fide McCranie 2015 (checklist Honduras, snakes of Honduras), not in Mexico (Heimes 2016), but reported for Costa Rica by Savage 2000: 735.
CAMPBELL & LAMAR (2004) consider the likely type locality of Linnaeus's durissus to have been the Guyanan region of South America, not Mexico, and they reject Smith & Taylor's restriction of the type locality to Jalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. In consequence, all the South American forms of the complex treated as subspecies of Crotalus durissus, and the populations from coastal Guyana, Suriname and French Guyana, formerly known as C. durissus dryinas, become C. durissus durissus. See map in Nogueira et al. 2019 (for South America).

Nomenclature: Hoser’s 2009 classification and nomenclature has been rejected as unnecessary and unavailable by WÜSTER & BERNILS 2011. 
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