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Crotalus enyo COPE, 1861

IUCN Red List - Crotalus enyo - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesCrotalus enyo cerralvensis CLIFF 1954
Crotalus enyo furvus LOWE & NORRIS 1954
Crotalus enyo enyo (COPE 1861) 
Common NamesE: Lower California Rattlesnake (furvus: Rosario Rattlesnake; cerralvensis: Cerralvo Rattlesnake; enyo: Baja California Rattlesnake)
G: Baja-Klapperschlange
S: Cascabel de Baja California 
SynonymCrotalus enyo enyo (COPE 1861)
Caudisona enyo COPE 1861
Crotalus enyo enyo LOWE & NORRIS 1954
Crotalus enyo — STEBBINS 1985: 246
Crotalus enyo — LINER 1994
Crotalus enyo cerralvensis CLIFF 1954 (fide GRISMER 1999)
Crotalus enyo — WELCH 1994: 45
Crotalus enyo — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 283
Caudisona (Pillotus) enyo — HOSER 2009
Crotalus enyo — WALLACH et al. 2014: 190

Crotalus enyo cerralvensis CLIFF 1954
Crotalus enyo cerralvensis — BEAMAN & HAYES 2008

Crotalus enyo furvus LOWE & NORRIS 1954
Crotalus enyo furvus — BEAMAN & HAYES 2008

Crotalus enyo enyo (COPE 1861)
Caudisona enyo COPE 1861
Crotalus enyo enyo — BEAMAN & HAYES 2008 
DistributionMexico (Baja California)

cerralvensis: Cerralvo Island (Gulf of California); Type locality. Type locality: "Isla Cerralvo in Gulf of California" [Cerralvo Island, Gulf of California, Mexico].

furvus: Baja California (west coast, from San Telmo River to El Rosariao); Type locality: "10.9 miles (by road) north of EI Rosario, along the main road on the coastwise terrace near the foot of a bold Cretaceous escarpment, Baja California Norte, Mexico."

enyo: Mexico (Baja California); Type locality: “Lower California."  
TypesLectotype: ANSP 7159 (wet skin), designated by Beaman and Grismer (1994), paralectotype: USNM 5291. See also discussion in MCDIARMID et al. 1999.
Holotype: CAS-SUR 14021 [cerralvensis]
Holotype: MVZ 55388 [furvus] 
CommentVenomous! GRISMER (1999) synonymized Crotalus enyo cerralvensis with Crotalus enyo.

Nomenclature: Hoser’s 2009 classification and nomenclature has been rejected as unnecessary and unavailable by WÜSTER & BERNILS 2011. 
  • Akeret, B. 2010. Sukkulenten und andere Pflanzen für das Trockenterrarium. Draco 11 (41): 44-53 - get paper here
  • Akeret, Beat 2015. Sukkulenten als Terrarienpflanzen. Draco 16 (62): 28-38
  • Beaman K R; Grismer L L 1994. Crotalus enyo (Cope), Baja California rattlesnake. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 589: 1-6 - get paper here
  • Beaman, K.R. & Hayes, W.K. 2008. Rattlesnakes: Research Trends and Annotated Checklist. In: Hayes et al. (eds), The biology of rattlesnakes. Loma Linda University Press, pp. 5-16
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Cliff, Frank S. 1954. Snakes of the islands in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 12 (5): 67-98 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1861. Contributions to the ophiology of Lower California, Mexico and Central America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 13: 292-306 - get paper here
  • GARCÍA-PADILLA, ELI; JORGE H. VALDEZ VILLAVICENCIO, ANNY PERALTA GARCÍA 2018. Las Serpientes de Cascabel más allá del continente. Especies - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee. 1999. An evolutionary classification of reptiles on islands in the Gulf of California, México. Herpetologica 55 (4): 446-469 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Hoser, R. 2009. A reclassification of the rattlesnakes; species formerly exclusively referred to the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus. Australasian J. Herpetol. 3: 1-21 - get paper here
  • Lowe, Charles H., Jr & Norris, Kenneth S. 1954. Analysis of the herpetofauna of Baja California, Mexico. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 12 (4): 47-64 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Meik, Jesse M and André Pires-daSilva 2009. Evolutionary morphology of the rattlesnake style. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2009, 9:35 - get paper here
  • Olivier, R. 2008. Da Baja California ratelslang, Crotalus enyo en een kweekverslag van de Rosario ratelslang, Crotalus enyo furvus. Lacerta 66 (1-3): 30-39 - get paper here
  • Rodríguez-Robles, Javier A., Good, David A., Wake, David B. 2003. Brief History of Herpetology in the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley, with a List of Type Specimens of Recent Amphibians and Reptiles. UC Publications in Zoology, 119 pp. - get paper here
  • Schmidt, D. & Kunz, K. 2005. Ernährung von Schlangen. Natur und Tier Verlag, Münster, 159 pp. - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Van Denburgh,J. 1895. A review of the herpetology of Lower California. Part I - Reptiles. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 77-163 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Winchell, S. 2007. Klapperschlangen! Die Gattung Crotalus. Reptilia (Münster) 12 (66): 18-25 - get paper here
  • Wüster, W. & Bérnils, R.S. 2011. On the generic classification of the rattlesnakes, with special reference to the Neotropical Crotalus durissus complex (Squamata: Viperidae). ZOOLOGIA 28 (4): 417–419 - get paper here
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