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Crotalus oreganus HOLBROOK, 1840

IUCN Red List - Crotalus oreganus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Northern Pacific Rattlesnake
G: Oregon-Klapperschlange 
SynonymCrotalus viridis oreganus HOLBROOK 1840
Crotalus oreganus HOLBROOK 1840
Crotalus lucifer BAIRD & GIRARD 1852
Crotalus oregonus [sic] — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 145
Crotalus lucifer — GARMAN 1887: 123
Crotalus oregonus [sic] — VAN DENBURGH 1898: 141
Crotalus oregonus [sic] — VAN DENBURGH 1912: 149
Crotalus confluentus oreganus — FITCH 1936
Crotalus viridis oreganus KLAUBER 1949
Crotalus viridis oreganus — EINFALT 1998
Crotalus oreganus oreganus — ASHTON et al. 2001
Crotalus oreganus — DOUGLAS et al. 2002
Crotalus oreganus oreganus — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004
Crotalus oreganus — HOSER 2009
Crotalus oreganus — CROTHER et al. 2012
Crotalus oreganus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 193
Crotalus oreganus — DAVIS et al. 2016
Crotalus oreganus oreganus — WESTEEN et al. 2023 
DistributionSW Canada (Pacific slopes est of the Cascades and west of the Sierra Nevada, from British Columbia south)
W USA (Washington, California, Oregon ?, Colorado, Arizona, Montana),
Mexico (Baja California, fide Heimes 2016, O. Flores-Villlea, pers. comm., 21 June 2021)

Type locality: Oregon Territory.  
TypesHolotype: ANSP 7158
Syntypes: USNM 370, 7762 [Crotalus lucifer] 

Distribution: see map in Davis et al. 2016 (Fig. 2).

Size: Length up to 58 inches (~ 145 cm).

ASHTON et al. (2001) split C. viridis into two evolutionary species, C. viridis and C. oreganus. CROTHER (2003) and others also followed that scheme. Pook et al. (2002) found that cerberus is genetically isolated from other viridis and thus can be considered as a separate species or as divergent subspecies or viridis.

Subspecies: Previously recognized subspecies are now treated as full species. Davis et al. (2016: 13) noted that “caliginis is recognized as a diminutive insular form of helleri, while abyssus is a stunted lutosus, and nuntius a dwarfed viridis”. While they treat helleri, concolor, and lutosus as valid (evolutionary) species, they also state that “calignis is not sufficiently divergent at the molecular level and should instead be designated as an insular population of C. helleri” and fail to differentiate abyssus, and thus “recommend it should instead be subsumed within C. lutosus”.

Nomenclature: Hoser’s 2009 classification and nomenclature has been rejected as unnecessary and unavailable by WÜSTER & BERNILS 2011. 
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