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Crotalus pyrrhus (COPE, 1866)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Southwestern Speckled Rattlesnake
G: Südwestliche Gefleckte Klapperschlange
S: Vibora Blanca del Suroeste 
SynonymCaudisona pyrrha COPE 1866
Crotalus mitchellii mitchellii — STEJNEGER 1895
Crotalus mitchellii pyrrhus — STEJNEGER 1895
Crotalus mitchellii muertensis KLAUBER 1949
Crotalus mitchellii muertensis — CLIFF 1954
Crotalus mitchellii pyrrhus — CLIFF 1954
Crotalus mitchellii pyrrhus — STEBBINS 1985: 229
Crotalus mitchellii pyrrhus — LINER 1994
Crotalus mitchellii muertensis — LINER 1994
Crotalus muertensis — GRISMER 1999
Crotalus mitchellii pyrrhus — MATTISON 2007: 132
Crotalus mitchellii pyrrhus — BEAMAN & HAYES 2008
Crotalus mitchellii muertensis — BEAMAN & HAYES 2008
Crotalus mitchellii pyrrhus — LAITA 2013
Crotalus mitchellii pyrrhus — LOVE 2015
Crotalus muertensis — LEMOS-ESPINAL 2015
Crotalus pyrrhus — MEIK et al. 2015 
DistributionUSA (S California, S Nevada, W Arizona, SW Utah), Mexico (NW Sonora, N Baja California)

Type locality: Not given in original description; given as "Canon Prieto, a locality near Fort Whipple [Yavapai County], Arizona" by Coues In Wheeler 1875: 608, and as "Canyon Prieto, Yavapai County, Arizona" [USA], by Klauber, 1956, Rattlesnakes, 1st ed., 1:708 pp.[38].

muertensis: Mexico (Baja Califronia: El Muerto Island)  
TypesHolotype: USNM 6606 (pyrrhus)
Holotype : SDNHM = SDSNH 37447; paratypes SDNHM = SDSNH [muertensis] 

Synonymy: Grismer (1999) elevated angelensis and muertensis to full species status based on aspects of coloration, squamation, and size using an evolutionary species concept. However, he provides details only on some body measurements which are of little use without a larger number or specimen. Meik et al. 2015 found that muertensis nested within pyrrhus and thus considered both as synonymous. Listed as synonym of Crotalus mitchellii by WALLACH et al. 2014: 194.

Nomenclature: Hoser’s 2009 classification and nomenclature has been rejected as unnecessary and unavailable by WÜSTER & BERNILS 2011.

Distribution: see map in Meik et al. 2015: Fig. 1 
  • Beaman, K.R. & Hayes, W.K. 2008. Rattlesnakes: Research Trends and Annotated Checklist. In: Hayes et al. (eds), The biology of rattlesnakes. Loma Linda University Press, pp. 5-16
  • Cliff, Frank S. 1954. Snakes of the islands in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 12 (5): 67-98 - get paper here
  • Cochran, Chip; Katherine L. Edwards, Zachary D. Travis, Lance R. Pompe & William K. Hayes 2021. Diet and Feeding Frequency in the Southwestern Speckled Rattlesnake (Crotalus pyrrhus): Ontogenetic, Sexual, Geographic, and Seasonal Variation. Journal of Herpetology 55 (1): 77-87 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1867. On the REPTILIA and BATRACHIA of the Sonoran Province of the Nearctic Region. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 18 [1866]: 300-314 - get paper here
  • DUGAN, ERIC A. & ROBERT DLUGOS. 2022. CROTALUS PYRRHUS (Southwestern Speckled Rattlesnake). DIET. Herpetological Review 53(2): 338.
  • GARCÍA-PADILLA, ELI; JORGE H. VALDEZ VILLAVICENCIO, ANNY PERALTA GARCÍA 2018. Las Serpientes de Cascabel más allá del continente. Especies - get paper here
  • Gomard, Guillaume 2017. In steinigen Wüsten: die Herpetofauna Südkaliforniens. Terraria-Elaphe 2017 (6): 52-61 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee. 1999. An evolutionary classification of reptiles on islands in the Gulf of California, México. Herpetologica 55 (4): 446-469 - get paper here
  • Klauber, Laurence M. 1949. Some new and revived subspecies of rattlesnakes. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 11 (6): 61-116 - get paper here
  • Kwet, A. 2015. Gefleckte Klapperschlangen sind ein Artenkomplex. Reptilia (Münster) 20 (114): 6-7 - get paper here
  • Laita, Mark 2013. Serpentine. Abrams and PQ Blackwell, Auckland, New Zealand, 200 unnumbered pages
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Rorabaugh JC 2019. A conservation checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Sonora, Mexico, with updated species lists. ZooKeys 829: 131-160 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A. (ed.) 2015. Amphibians and Reptiles of the US - Mexico Border States / Anfibios y Reptiles de los Estados de la Frontera México - Estados Unidos. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas. x + 614 pp.; ISBN 978-1-62349-306-6. - get paper here
  • Lillywhite, H.B. 2022. Discovering snakes in wild places. ECO Publishing, Rodeo, NM, 164 pp. - get paper here
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  • Meik, Jesse M. and Gordon W. Schuett 2016. Structure, Ontogeny, and Evolutionary Development of the Rattlesnake Rattle. - get paper here
  • Moore, R.G. 1978. Seasonal and Daily Activity Patterns and Thermoregulation in the Southwestern Speckled Rattlesnake (Crotalus mitchelli pyrrhus) and the Colorado Desert Sidewinder (Crotalus cerastes laterorepens) Copeia 1978 (3): 439-442. - get paper here
  • Spinner, L. 2017. Die Klapperschlangen der USA in Natur und Terrarium. Reptilia (Münster) 22 (124): 18-33 - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Stejneger, Leonard 1895. The Poisonous Snakes of North America. Report of the U. S. National Museum for 1893: 337-487 + 19 plates - get paper here
  • Tellez, M. and C. Cochran 2017. Crotalus pyrrhus (Southwestern Speckled Rattlesnake) Ectoparasitism. Herpetological Review 48 (2): 447-448 - get paper here
  • Ukuwela, K.D.B., de Silva, A., Sivaruban, A. et al. 2022. Diversity, distribution, and natural history of the marine snakes of Sri Lanka. Marine Biodiversity 52, 24 (2022) - get paper here
  • YOUNGBERG, KIMBERLY A.; SCOTT SCHUPE, BARNEY OLDFIELD & DANIEL KEYLER. 2022. CROTALUS PYRRHUS (Southwestern Speckled Rattlesnake). DIET. Herpetological Review 53(3): 508.
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