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Crotalus ruber COPE, 1892

IUCN Red List - Crotalus ruber - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesCrotalus ruber exsul GARMAN 1884
Crotalus ruber ruber COPE 1892
Crotalus ruber lucasensis VAN DENBURGH 1920 
Common NamesE: Red Diamond Rattlesnake (exsul: Cedros Island Rattlesnake; lucasensis: San Lucan Rattlesnake; ruber: Red Diamond Rattlesnake; monserratensis: Red Rattlesnake)
G: Rote Diamant-Klapperschlange
S: Cascabel Diamante Rojo 
SynonymCrotalus ruber ruber COPE 1892
Crotalus adamanteus var. ruber COPE 1892: 690
Crotalus atrox ruber — STEJNEGER 1895
Crotalus atrox elegans SCHMIDT 1922
Crotalus ruber ruber KLAUBER 1949
Crotalus ruber ruber — CLIFF 1954
Crotalus ruber monserratensis HARRIS & SIMMONS 1978
Crotalus ruber ruber — STEBBINS 1985: 227
Crotalus ruber ruber — LINER 1994
Crotalus ruber — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 292
Crotalus ruber — ERNST & ERNST 2003: 525
Crotalus ruber ruber — BEAMAN & HAYES 2008
Hoserea (Mullinsus) ruber — HOSER 2009
Hoserea (Mullinsus) exsul — HOSER 2009
Crotalus ruber — WALLACH et al. 2014: 194

Crotalus ruber exsul GARMAN 1884
Crotalus exsul GARMAN 1884: 114
Crotalus exsul — GARMAN 1887: 122
Crotalus exsul — LINER 1994
Crotalus exsul — GRISMER et al. 1994
Crotalus exsul — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 284
Crotalus ruber exsul — BEAMAN & HAYES 2008
Crotalus exsul — ZAHER et al. 2019

Crotalus ruber lucasensis VAN DENBURGH 1920
Crotalus lucasensis VAN DENBURGH 1920
Crotalus lucasensis — SMITH 1944: 92
Crotalus ruber lucasensis — KLAUBER 1949
Crotalus ruber lucasensis — CLIFF 1954
Crotalus ruber lucansensis [sic] — STEBBINS 1985: 227
Crotalus ruber lucasensis — LINER 1994
Crotalus lucasensis — SHINE 1994
Crotalus ruber lucasensis — MATTISON 2007: 45
Crotalus ruber lucasensis — BEAMAN & HAYES 2008 
DistributionMexico (Baja California),
USA (SW California)

ruber: USA (California); Type locality: None given in COPE 1892. Smith and Taylor (1950) proposed "Dulzura, San Diego County, California" as a possibility and Schmidt (1953) designated "vicinity of San Diego, California."

exsul: Mexico (Baja California)

lucasensis: Mexico (S Baja California, Santa Margarita Island, San Jose Island)  
Reproductionovovivparous. Crotalus ruber has been hybridized with C. atrox (SCHMIDT 2004). 
TypesHolotype: USNM 9209
Holotype: CAS 45888 [lucasensis]
Syntypes: MCZ R652 [exsul] 

Synonymy: partly after McDIARMID et al. 1999. Crotalus atrox elegans SCHMIDT 1922 has been synonymized with C. atrox by AMARAL 1929. AMARAL 1929 also considered lucasensis as indistinguishable from either elegans or atrox. GRISMER et al. 1994 synonymized C. ruber with C. exsul but C. ruber has been given precedence by the ICZN (Opinion 1960).

Subspecies: GRISMER (1999) suggested to elevate Crotalus ruber lorenzoensis to full species status based on an evolutionary species concept.

Nomenclature: Smith et al. (1998) proposed to retain the name C. ruber: “The purpose of this application is to conserve the long used and well known specific name of Crotalus ruber Cope, 1892 for the red diamond rattlesnake (family Viperidae) of southern California, the peninsula of Baja California and some offshore islands, by giving it precedence over the less widely used name C. exsul Garman, 1884. The latter name refers to the rat tlesnake of the Isla de Cedros, Baja California, Mexico, which some authors now consider to be conspecific with C. ruber” [from SMITH et al. 1998]. Hoser’s 2009 classification and nomenclature has been rejected as unnecessary and unavailable by WÜSTER & BERNILS 2011. 
  • Amaral,A. do 1929. Studies of nearctic ophidia IV. On Crotalus tortugensis VANDENBURGH AND SLEVIN, 1921, Crotalus atrox elegans SCHMIDT, 1922, and Crotalus atrox lucasensis (VANDEBURGH, 1920). Bull. Antivenin Inst. America 2 (4): 85-86
  • Arnaud, G; R Alonso Carbajal-Marquez, J Rodriguez-Canseco, E Ferreyra 2014. First record of the red diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus ruber) of Coronados Island, Gulf of California, Mexico. REVISTA MEXICANA DE BIODIVERSIDAD 85 (1): 322-324 - get paper here
  • Barry, S.J. & Jennings, M.R. 1998. Case 3012: Coluber infernalis Blainville, 1835 and Eutaenia sirtalis tetrataenia Cope in Yarrow, 1875 (currently Thamnophis sirtalis infernalis and T. s. tetrataenia; Reptilia, Squamata): proposed conservation of the subspecific names by the designat Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 55 (4): 224-228 - get paper here
  • Beaman, K. R. and E. A. Dugan 2006. Crotalus ruber. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 840: 1-17. - get paper here
  • Beaman, K.R. & Hayes, W.K. 2008. Rattlesnakes: Research Trends and Annotated Checklist. In: Hayes et al. (eds), The biology of rattlesnakes. Loma Linda University Press, pp. 5-16
  • Berg, M. van den et al. 2013. Traumterrarien. Reptilia (Münster) 18 (100): 16-27 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Cliff, Frank S. 1954. Snakes of the islands in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 12 (5): 67-98 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1892. A critical review of the characters and variations of the snakes of North America. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 14: 589-694 - get paper here
  • CORBIT, AARON G. & WILLIAM K. HAYES. 2022. Human–Wildlife Conflict at a Suburban–Wildlands Interface: Effects of Short- and Long-Distance Translocations on Red Diamond Rattlesnake (Crotalus ruber) Activity and Survival. Diversity 14(2): 130. - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Douglas, Michael E.; Marlis R. Douglas, Gordon W. Schuett & Louis W. Porras 2006. Evolution of Rattlesnakes (Viperidae: Crotalus) in the Warm Deserts of Western North America Shaped by Neogene Vicariance and Quaternary Climate Change. Molecular Ecology 15: 3353-3374 - get paper here
  • DUGAN, ERIC A. & GINNI CALLAHAN. 2022. CROTALUS RUBER (Red Diamond Rattlesnake). DIET. Herpetological Review 53(3): 508.
  • Dugan, Eric A. and William K. Hayes 2012. Diet and Feeding Ecology of the Red Diamond Rattlesnake, Crotalus ruber (Serpentes: Viperidae). Herpetologica 68 (2): 203-217. - get paper here
  • Dugan, Eric A., Anderson, Bryce, Anderson, Paul and Najera, Miguel 2017. Crotalus ruber (Red Diamond Rattlesnake) Diet. Herpetological Review 48 (1): 210 - get paper here
  • Dugan, Eric A., Daniels, Brett and De La Torre, Guillermo 2017. Crotalus ruber (Red Diamond Rattlesnake) Diet. Herpetological Review 48 (1): 210 - get paper here
  • Ernst, C.H. & Ernst, E.M. 2003. Snakes of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, 668 pp.
  • GARCÍA-PADILLA, ELI; JORGE H. VALDEZ VILLAVICENCIO, ANNY PERALTA GARCÍA 2018. Las Serpientes de Cascabel más allá del continente. Especies - get paper here
  • Garman, Samuel 1884. The reptiles and batrachians of North America. Mem. Mus. comp. Zool, Cambridge (Massachusetts), 8 (3): xxxiv + 185 pp. [1883] [CNAH reprint 10] - get paper here
  • Goldberg, STEPHEN R. 1999. REPRODUCTION IN THE RED DIAMOND RATTLESNAKE IN CALIFORNIA. California Fish and Game 85 (4):177-180 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. L.; McGuire, J. A.; Hollingsworth, B. D. 1994. A report on the herpetofauna of the Vizcaino Peninsula, Baja California, Mexico, with a discussion of its biogeographic and taxonomic implications. Bull. Southern California Acad. Sci. 93 (2): 45-80
  • Grismer, L. Lee. 1999. An evolutionary classification of reptiles on islands in the Gulf of California, México. Herpetologica 55 (4): 446-469 - get paper here
  • Hammerson, G.A. 1981. Opportunistic Scavenging by Crotalus ruber Not Field-Proven Journal of Herpetology 15 (1): 125. - get paper here
  • Harrington SM, Hollingsworth BD, Higham TE, Reeder TW. 2017. Pleistocene climatic fluctuations drive isolation and secondary contact in the red diamond rattlesnake (Crotalus ruber) in Baja California. J Biogeogr. 45:64–75 [2018] - get paper here
  • Harris, Herbert S. & Simmons, Robert S. 1978. A preliminary account of the rattlesnakes with the descriptions of four new subspecies. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 14 (3): 105-211 [1977] - get paper here
  • Hartmann, P., Jr. & B. Steiner 1984. Breeding results: Crotalus ruber x atrox. Litteratura Serpentium 4 (2): 81 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Hollingsworth, Bradford & Mellink, Erik 1996. Crotalus exsul lorenzoensis: Arboreal behavior. Herpetological Review 27 (3): 143-144 - get paper here
  • Hoser, R. 2009. A reclassification of the rattlesnakes; species formerly exclusively referred to the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus. Australasian J. Herpetol. 3: 1-21 - get paper here
  • Klauber, Laurence M. 1949. The relationship of Crotalus ruber and Crotalus lucasensis. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 11 (5): 57-60 - get paper here
  • Lillywhite, H.B. 2022. Discovering snakes in wild places. ECO Publishing, Rodeo, NM, 164 pp. - get paper here
  • MAAG, DYLAN & RULON CLARK. 2022. Safety in coils: predation rates of ambush hunting rattlesnakes are extremely low. Amphibia-Reptilia 1(aop): 1–6. - get paper here
  • Mattison, Chris 2007. The New Encyclopedia of Snakes. Princeton University Press
  • McCranie, J.R. & Wilson, L.D. 1979. Commentary on taxonomic practice in regional herpetological publications: a review of the rattlesnakes with the description of four new subspecies [by HARRIS & SIMMONS 1978]. Herpetological Review 10 (1): 18-21 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Murphy, R. W.; Ottley, J. R. 1984. Distribution of amphibians and reptiles on islands in the Gulf of California. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 53 (8): 207-230 - get paper here
  • Murphy,R.W. et al. 1995. mtDNA gene sequence, allozyme, and morphological uniformity among red diamond rattlesnakes, Crotalus ruber and Crotalus exsul. Can. J. Zool. 73: 270-281 - get paper here
  • Patten, R.B. & B.H. Banta 1980. A Rattlesnake, Crotalus ruber, feeds on a Road-Killed Animal Journal of Herpetology 14 (1): 111-112. - get paper here
  • Radcliffe, C. W.; Maslin, T. Paul 1975. A new subspecies of the red rattlesnake, Crotalus ruber, from San Lorenzo Sur Island, Baja California Norte, Mexico. Copeia 1975 (3): 490-493 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, D. 2004. Nordamerikas König der Klapperschlangen, Crotalus atrox. Reptilia (Münster) 9 (46): 74-79 - get paper here
  • Shine, Richard 1994. Sexual size dimorphism in snakes revisited. Copeia 1994 (2): 326-346 - get paper here
  • Smetsers, Peet 1996. Crotalus ruber, de rode diamantratelslang. Het Terrarium 13 (8): 4-8
  • Smith, H. M., L. E. Brown, D. Chiszar, L. L. Grismer, G. S. Allen, A. Fishbein, B. D. Hollingsworth, J. A. McGuire, V. Wallach, P. Strimple, and E. A. Liner 1998. Crotalus ruber Cope, 1892 (Reptilia, Serpentes): Proposed Precedence of the Specific Name Over That of Crotalus exsul Garman, 1884. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 55 (4): 229-232 - get paper here
  • Smith, H. M.; Holland, R. L. 1971. Noteworthy snakes and lizards from Baja California. Journal of Herpetology 5 (1-2): 56-59 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1944. Additions to the list of Mexican amphibians and reptiles in the Carnegie Museum. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 30: 87-92
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  • Tevis, lloyd, Jr. 1944. Herpetological notes from lower California. Copeia 1944 (1): 6-18 - get paper here
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  • Van Denburgh, John 1896. Additional notes on the herpetology of Lower California. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 1004-1008 - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh,J. 1920. Description of a new species of rattlesnake (Crotalus lucasensis) from Lower California. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4) 10: 29-30 - get paper here
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  • Winchell, S. 2007. Klapperschlangen! Die Gattung Crotalus. Reptilia (Münster) 12 (66): 18-25 - get paper here
  • Wüster, W. & Bérnils, R.S. 2011. On the generic classification of the rattlesnakes, with special reference to the Neotropical Crotalus durissus complex (Squamata: Viperidae). ZOOLOGIA 28 (4): 417–419 - get paper here
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