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Crotaphopeltis hotamboeia (LAURENTI, 1768)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: White-lipped Herald Snake, Red-lipped Snake
G: Weißlippen-Schlange 
SynonymCoronella hotamboeia LAURENTI 1768: 58
Leptodira rufescens GMELIN 1789: 1094 — GÜNTHER 1895: 525
Coronella rufescens — SCHLEGEL 1837
Dipsas inornatus SMITH 1849
Heterurus rufescens — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1170
Crotaphopeltis rufescens — BOCAGE 1866: 49
Leptodira rufescens — BOETTGER 1893: 119
Leptodira hotamboeia — PERACCA 1897
Leptodira hitamboeia — BOULENGER 1897: 279 (in error)
Leptodira hotamboeia — STERNFELD 1917
Leptodira hotamboeia — MONARD 1931: 106
Leptodeira hotamboeia — SCHMIDT 1923: 107
Leptodira hotamboeia — SCORTECCI 1929: 275
Leptodira hotamboeia — SCORTECCI 1931: 19
Crotaphopeltis hotamboeia hotamboeia — LOVERIDGE 1937: 276
Tarbophis barnum-browni BOGERT 1940
Crotaphopeltis hotamboeia ruziziensis LAURENT 1956
Crotaphopeltis hotamboeia — BROADLEY 1968
Crotaphopeltis bicolor (LEACH 1819)
Crotaphopeltis hotamboeia — AUERBACH 1987: 184
Crotaphopeltis hotamboeia — RÖDEL & MAHSBERG 2000
Crotaphopeltis hotamboeia — LARGEN & SPAWLS 2010: 533
Crotaphopeltis hotamboeia — WALLACH et al. 2014: 199
Crotaphopeltis hotamboeia — SPAWLS et al. 2018: 525 
DistributionE/S Republic of South Africa (Eastern Cape etc.), Swaziland, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Zambia, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire; except in the center), Congo (Brazzaville), Malawi, Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, Kenya, Senegal, Mali, Eritrea, Ethiopia, S Somalia, Central African Republic, Gambia (HÅKANSSON 1981), Ivory Coast (RÖDEL et al. 1999), Cameroon (Joger 1982, Böhme & Schneider 1987), Gabon (Pauwels et al. 2006), Ghana, Benin, Burkina Faso, Liberia, Togo, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Guinea (Conakry), Namibia, Angola, Republic of South Sudan (RSS), Sudan (Jumhūriyyat)

Type locality: “India orientali” = Africa.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: iconotype, otherwise none given. Description based on fig. 6, plate xxxiii in Seba 1734 
DiagnosisDIAGNOSIS: An African savanna living species of Crotaphopeltis with the following character combination: (17) 19 (21) scale rows at mid-body, dorsal scales keeled, at least posteriorly; 12- 18 + II + 1 maxillary teeth; 31-57 (male) and 25- 51 (female) subcaudals; hemipenis extending to sub caudal scute No. seven to fourteen and provided with three distinctly enlarged, stout, proximal spines; dorsum various shades of grey, brown, olive or black, usually with scattered white specks which may form transverse bands in juveniles and subadults, temple with a dark, bluish- black or purplish-black mark which may extend backwards to encircle the occiput and reach the last, or the last and penultimate, and rarely also the antepenultimate infralabial; venter and underside of tail white, cream or pale brown, exceptionally with some dark pigmentation [from RASMUSSEN et al. 2000]. 
CommentType species: Coronella rufescens is the type species of the genus Crotaphopeltis FITZINGER 1843. 
References
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