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Crotaphytus collaris (SAY, 1822)

IUCN Red List - Crotaphytus collaris - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaCrotaphytidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesCrotaphytus collaris auriceps FITCH & TANNER 1951
Crotaphytus collaris collaris (SAY 1823)
Crotaphytus collaris baileyi STEJNEGER 1890
Crotaphytus collaris fuscus INGRAM & TANNER 1971
Crotaphytus collaris melanomaculatus AXTELL & WEBB 1995 
Common NamesE: Collared Lizard
G: Halsband Leguan (auriceps: Goldkopf-Halsbandleguan)
S: Cachorón de Collar 
SynonymAgama collaris SAY in JAMES 1822: 252
Crotaphytus collaris — HOLBROOK 1842
Leiosaurus collaris — DUMÉRIL 1856: 532
Crotaphytus collaris — BOULENGER 1885: 203
Crotaphytus dickersonae SCHMIDT 1922 (fide SMITH & TAYLOR 1950)
Crotaphytus dickersonae — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 93
Crotaphytus collaris — STEBBINS 1985: 120
Crotaphytus collaris — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 96
Crotaphytus collaris — LINER 1994
Crotaphytus collaris — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009

Crotaphytus collaris auriceps FITCH & TANNER 1951
Crotaphytus collaris dickersonae (MONTANUCCI, AXTELL & DESSAUER 1975)
Crotaphytus collaris auriceps — STEBBINS 1985: 120
Crotaphytus dickersonae — PIANKA & VITT 2003: 162
Crotaphytus collaris auriceps — MERKER et al. 2004

Crotaphytus collaris baileyi STEJNEGER 1890
Crotaphytus baileyi STEJNEGER 1890: 103 (fide COPE 1898: 250)
Crotaphytus baileyi STEJNEGER 1893: 165
Crotaphytes collaris baileyi — STONE & REHN 1903: 30
Crotaphytes collaris baileyi — ORTENBURGER & ORTENBURGER 1927
Crotaphytus collaris baileyi — TAYLOR 1938: 480
Crotaphytus collaris baileyi — KLAUBER 1939
Crotaphytus collaris baileyi — JAMESON & FLURY 1949
Crotaphytus collaris baileyi — WILLIAMS et al. 1960
Crotaphytus collaris baileyi — MONTANUCCI et al. 1975
Crotaphytus collaris baileyi — LINER et al. 1993
Crotaphytus collaris baileyi — LAZCANO-VILLAREAL & DIXON 2002

Crotaphytus collaris fuscus INGRAM & TANNER 1971
Crotaphytus collaris fuscus — MERKER et al. 2004

Crotaphytus collaris melanomaculatus AXTELL & WEBB 1995
Crotaphytus collaris melanomaculatus — LEMOS-ESPINAL et al. 2018 
DistributionUSA (Arizona, Nevada, SE Utah, S Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, Arkansas),
Mexico (Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua, N Durango, Coahuila, N Zacatecas, Nuevo Leon; W Louisiana)

auriceps: E Utah, NW Colorado; Type locality: "3 1/2 mi. NNE Dewey, west side of the Colorado River, Grand County, Utah".

baileyi: USA (New Mexico, Utah, Texas), Mexico (Coahuila); Type locality: "Painted Desert, Little Colorado River, Arizona"

collaris: Texas

fuscus: USA (New Mexico, W Texas); Mexico (Chihuahua); Type locality: "6.5 mi. N and 1.5 mi. W of Chihuahua City, Chihuahua, Mexico".

melanomaculatus: Mexico (NE Durango, Coahuila, N Zacatecas, S Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, SW Tamaulipas). Type locality: 3.8 km S, 1.7 km E Graseros on the highway to Presa Francisco Zarca, el 1250 m, Durango, Mexico (25 14′ 10″N, 103 47′W)  
Reproductionoviparous. There may be temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) or temperature-dependent survival rates in both sexes (Santoyo-Brito et al. 2017). 
TypesHolotype: lost, originally ANSP
Holotype: KU 29934, paratype: BYU [auriceps]
Holotype: USNM 15821 [baileyi]
Holotype: BYU 16970 [fuscus]
Holotype: UTEP 15915 [melanomaculatus]
Holotype: Los Angeles Co. Mus. No. 126617 [nebrius] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Crotaphytus collaris may be distinguished from all other speciesof Croraphyrusby the absence of dark brown or black pigmentation in the gular fold (= ventrally complete anterior collar) of adult males. It may be further distinguished from C. reficulafusand C. antiquus by the absence of a reticulate dorsal pattern in adults of both sexes and from C.reticulatus by the absence of jet black femoral pores in males. It may be further distinguished from C. dickersonae, C. grismeri, C. bicinctores, C. vestigium, and C. insularis by the absence in adult males of enlarged dark brown or black inguinal patches, a laterally compressed tail, a white or pale tan dorsal caudal stripe, and a pale tan or off-white patternless region on the dorsal surface of the head. It may be further distinguished from C.grismeri, C. bicincfores, C. vesfigium,and C. insularis by the presence of black oral melanin (McGuire 1996: 76).

Coloration in Life. The color pattern of Crotaphytus collaris is extremely variable and it is probably not possible to give a complete description of the various color phases that characterize different populations of this wide-ranging species, especially given that the often vibrant coloration displayed by these lizards is quickly lost in preservative. For this reason, the following description of coloration in C. collaris is limited in some respects to those color morphs that I have examined firsthand.
Dorsal body coloration of adult males is extremely variable with some populations characterized by a green dorsal coloration, others by a turquoise to pale green body with a yellow head and feet, others by a pale or dark brown coloration, and still others by a gray or combination of gray and olive green. In those populations characterized by a yellow head, the intensity of the yellow pigments may range from pale to fluorescent. The white component of the dorsal pattern is retained well in preservative and is easily characterized as nearly all populations have white spots on the body with spots or reticulations present on the tail and hindlimbs. Some populations from Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, and Zacatecas may have a dorsal pattern consistingat least in pan of black spots that may or may not be surrounded by white, a pattern that is reminiscent of that of C. antiquus and C.reticulatus and potentially the result of introgression from the latter species(Montanucci, 1974).The forelimbsare generally patternless or only obscurely patterned, but may occasionally bear pale reticulations or spots. Transverse body bars are absent. Reticulations generally are confined to the superficial mandibular and temporal regions, as well as the hindlimbs and tail. A broad white or off-white caudal vertebral stripe is lacking. The dorsal surface of the head is not palecolored, and generally is covered with spots that range in color from rust to chocolate brown. Olive green or orange ventrolateral coloration is lacking. Most of the variation in gular pattern coloration observed within Crotaphytus is restricted to C. collaris. The gular coloration observed in living adult males examined over the course of this study range between olive green, dark blue, turquoise blue, slate gray, yellow, or orange. However, a black central component is not found in this species. As stated above, the peripheral gular pattern is always composed of a white reticulated pattern. Anterior and posterior collar markings are always present and the posterior markings occasionally may contact middorsally. The anterior collars are not complete ventrally as black pigments are absent from the gular fold. A pair of black spots may be present middorsally between the anterior collar markings. A pair of enlarged melanic axillary patches are variably present immediately posterior to the forelimb insertion, although they are restricted to populations from the western portion of the species' range (Arizona). Small melanic inguinal patches are also variably present in adult males from this portion of the range. The femoral pores are generally off-white to gray in color. Paired, melanic keels may or may not be present on the ventral surface of the caudal extremity (McGuire 1996: 76). 
CommentSubspecies: COLLINS & TAGGART 2009 do not distinguish any subspecies in North America. However, they (and other authors) consider all or some former subspecies either as synonyms of collaris or as full species. The AMNH checklist does not recognize any subspecies either (see link).

Synonymy: Montanucci et al. (1975) synonymized C. c. auriceps with C. c. baileyi. However, a number of authors continue to recognize auriceps. Cope 1900 synonymized baileyi with collaris as did other subsequent authors. Crotaphytus collaris baileyi hybridizes with C. (insularis) bicinctores but hybrids appear to have lower fitness (Montanucci 1983).

Type species: Agama collaris SAY 1823 is the type species of the genus Crotaphytus HOLBROOK 1842.

McGuire 1996 does not diagnose Crotaphytus moprhologically but only “defines” it as being “the clade stemming from the most recent common ancestor of Crotaphytus collaris and all species that are more closely related to that species than to Gambelia.” 
EtymologyThe generic name is derived from the Greek words krotaphos, meaning “side of head” and phyton, meaning "creature," applied in reference to then enlarged muscles on the posterior of the head. The species is named after the Latin word collaris meaning collar (Lemos-Espinal & Dixon 2013).

Crotaphytus dickersonae was named after Mary Cynthia Dickerson (1866-1923), former curator of Ichthyology and Herpetology at the American Museum of Natural History (1909-1921). 
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