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Ctenosaura quinquecarinata (GRAY, 1842)

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Higher TaxaIguanidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Five-keeled Spiny-tailed Iguana, Oaxacan Spinytail Iguana 
SynonymCyclura quinquecarinata GRAY 1842: 59
Enyaliosaurus quinquecarinatus — GRAY 1845: 192
Cyclura (Ctenosaura) quinquecarinata — COPE 1870: 161
Ctenosaura (Enyaliosaurus) quinquecarinata — BOCOURT 1874 (in: DUMÉRIL & BOCOURT)
Ctenosaura quinquecarinata — BOULENGER 1885: 198
Ctenosaura quinquecarinata — GÜNTHER 1885: 58
Ctenosaura quinquecarinata — BAILEY 1928: 42
Enyaliosaurus quinquecarinata — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 76
Enyaliosaurus quinquecarinatus — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970
Enyaliosaurus quinquecarinatus — GICCA 1983
Ctenosaura quinquecarinatus — LINER 1994
Ctenosaura quinquecarinata — KÖHLER 2000: 75
Ctenosaura (Enyaliosaurus) quinquecarinata — KÖHLER et al. 2000
Ctenosaura praeocularis HASBÚN & KÖHLER 2009
Ctenosaura praeocularis — MALONE et al. 2017 
DistributionS Mexico,
Nicaragua (Chontales, Matagalpa, Jinotega, Boaco, Managua, Granada),
El Salvador, NW Costa Rica (Guanacaste)

Type locality: unknown. Restricted to Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, by BAILEY 1928.

praeocularis: Honduras; Type locality: Cerro Las Mesitas, 10 km east of Sabanagrande toward Nueva Armenia, Montegrande, Departamento Francisco Morazán, Honduras, 800 m elevation, 13°46.43’N, 86°11.83’W.  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.8.30.48
Holotype: SMF 79520, an adult male, collected 8 August 1999 by Carlos Roberto Hasbún. Field tag number H4 [praeocularis] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (quinquecarinata): BAILEY 1928: 43

Diagnosis (praeocularis): A medium-sized species (largest specimen 168 mm SVL) of the genus Ctenosaura (sensu Köhler et al., 2000) that differs from all other species in the genus except C. flavidorsalis, C. oaxacana, and C. quinquecarinata by the following combination of characters: (1) caudal whorls of enlarged spinous scales separated by only one row of smaller intercalary scales; (2) the median and two lateral series of each caudal whorl distinctly enlarged; (3) a patch of enlarged strongly keeled scales present on the proximal antero-dorsal surface of shank; (4) absence of a dewlap; (5) a distinct middorsal crest usually present in adult males; (6) maximum SVL , 200 mm. Ctenosaura praeocularis differs from C. flavidorsalis, C. oaxacana and C. quinquecarinata by the following characteristics (conditions for C. praeocularis in parentheses): Ctenosaura flavidorsalis: middorsal crest in adult males not well developed, length of crest scales 0.1–1.2 mm, mean 0.48 mm (1.2–4.4 mm, mean 3.13 mm), crest scales not compressed (slightly compressed); coloration in life usually with yellow elements, overall paler coloration (no yellow elements, overall darker coloration); 2–4, mean 3.2, postmental scales (constantly 2); 5–58, mean 18.2, dorsal scale rows between occiput and first enlarged middorsal crest scale (4–8, mean 5.8); lacrimal-jugal suture straight (bifurcated suture); anterior inferior alveolar foramen of mandible not associated with splenial bone (associated with splenial bone). Ctenosaura quinquecarinata: usually two preocular scales present (usually only one preocular scale); lateral processes of frontal bone long (short); posterior angle of the parietal bone broad (narrow). Ctenosaura oaxacana: two preocular scales present (usually only one preocular scale); number of caudal whorls with spinous paramedian scales 3–6, mean 4.4 (5–15, mean 9.8) [from HASBUN & KÖHLER 2009]. 
CommentSynonymy: McCranie 2018 (and previous authors) placed Ctenosaura praeocularis in the synonymy of Ctenosaura quinquecarinata.

Distribution: Not listed for Honduras and El Salvador by KÖHLER (2000). Not listed for Honduras by WILSON & MCCRANIE (2002). Not in Mexico and El Salvador fide HUY (2008). Not in Oaxaca fide Mata-Silva et al. 2015.

BURRÉ (2004) described hybridization between Ctenosaura oaxacana and Ctenosaura quinquecarinata. 
EtymologyThe name quinquecarinata is formed from the Latin quinque (five) and carinatus (keeled). The meaning is unclear as are meanings of many names erected by Gray (see Pyron et al., 2014). 
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