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Ctenotus australis (GRAY, 1838)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Sphenomorphinae (Sphenomorphini), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Western Limestone Ctenotus 
SynonymTiliqua australis GRAY 1838: 291 (part.)
Lygosoma Lesueurii DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 733
Lygosoma australe — SIEBENROCK 1892
Lygosoma Lesueurii — SIEBENROCK 1892
Lygosoma (Hinulia) lesueuri — DE ROOIJ 1915: 174
Lygosoma (Hinulia) lesueuri — STERNFELD 1925: 243
Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) lesueuri — SMITH 1937: 220
Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) lesueurii — GLAUERT 1960
Lygosoma (Omolepida) australe — GLAUERT 1960
Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) lesueurii — FORD 1963
Ctenotus lesueuri — STORR 1969
Ctenotus lesueuri — STORR 1974
Ctenotus lesueurii — STORR 1975: 218
Ctenotus australis — COGGER 1983: 144
Minervascincus australis — WELLS & WELLINGTON 1985: 34
Ctenotus australis — COGGER 2000: 416
Ctenotus australis — WILSON & SWAN 2010 
DistributionAustralia (Western Australia)

Type locality: Australia  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 38.3.10.9. These specimens are unlabelled and share a jar with two unlabelled non-types (BMNH 44.4.13.111); these four specimens belong to at least three distinct species and until the name is fixed by appropriate lectotype designation, synonymy follows that of previous authors (COGGER 1983).
Syntypes: MNHP 2982 (2 specimens), from Australia [Lygosoma lesueurii] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (lesueurii): “A large, long-tailed, long-legged member of the lesueurii group, distinguishable from other members by bolder and more complex colour pattern, fewer midbody scale rows and more numerous subdigital lamellae. Further distinguishable from members of the inornatus subgroup (C. (aliens, severus, helenae etc.) by more numerous nuchals (usually 4, vs seldom more than 3).” (Storr 1975: 219)

Description (lesueurii): “Snout-vent length (mm): 38-93 (73.5). Length of appendages (% SVL): foreleg 24-35 (27.7), hindleg 40-59 (48.8), tail 219-267 (244).
Nasals separated, usually widely. Prefrontals in contact. Supraoculars 4, first 3 in contact with frontal. Supraciliaries usually 7, occasionally 8 (7.2). Palpebrals 10-13 (11.8). Second loreal 1.2-2.1 (1.66) times as wide as high. Upper labials usually 8, occasionally 9 (8.2). Ear lobules 4-6 (4.8), obtuse in juveniles, acute or subacute in adults, third usually largest. Nuchals 3-5 (4.1). Midbody scale rows 24-26 (24.4). Lamellae under fourth toe 23-28 (25.2), smooth or widely callose in adults, more compressed and narrowly callose in juveniles.
Ground colour of adults pale brown or brownish grey. Narrow to moderately wide black vertebral stripe from nape to base of tail, margined with white or brow:nish white (margins extending forward on to head, following outer edge of frontoparietals and frontal). Inner edge of black laterodorsal stripe margined with white. White dorsolateral line from temples to about middle of tail. Black upper lateral zone with two series of white dots or short dashes. White midlateral stripe fairly wide on tail, narrower on body, and breaking up behind foreleg into a series of dark-edged obliquely vertical bars extending forward to upper lip. Lower lateral zone blackish, dotted white (dots tending to clump into vertical bars). Limbs pale brown, longitudinally striped with dark brown.
Juveniles blackish brown marked with white as follows: on each side a paravertebral line and dorsolateral line (which may break up into a series of spots) and between them a dorsal line; a midlateral stripe, anteriorly breaking up into a series of spots; remainder of flanks with large spots, sometimes so close together ventrolaterally as to leave only a fine black reticulum.” (Storr 1975: 219) 
CommentSynonymy partly after COGGER 1983.

Limb morphology: 5 digits, 5 toes (Singhal et al. 2018, Cogger 2014) 
EtymologyNamed after the Latin adjective australis = southern, referring to its distribution in South-Western Western Australia. 
References
  • Broom, R. 1898. On the lizards of the Chillagoe District, N Queensland. Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 22: 639-645 [1897] - get paper here
  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • Couper, P., Covacevich, J., Amey, A. & Baker, A. 2006. The genera of skinks (Family Scincidae) of Australia and its island territories: diversity, distribution and identification. in: Merrick, J.R., Archer, M., Hickey, G.M. & Lee, M.S.Y. (eds.). Evolution and Zoogeography of Australasian Vertebrates. Australian Scientific Publishing, Sydney, pp. 367-384
  • de Rooij, N. de 1915. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. I. Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 384 pp. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol. 5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Ford, J. 1963. The Reptilian Fauna of the Islands between Dongara and Lancelin, Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalist 8 (6): 135-142 - get paper here
  • Glauert, L. 1960. Herpetological miscellanea. XII. The family Scincidae in Western Australia. Pt. 2. The genus Lygosoma. Western Australian Naturalist 7 (4): 81-99 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1838. Catalogue of the slender-tongued saurians, with descriptions of many new genera and species. Part 1. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (1) 1: 274-283 - get paper here
  • Maryan, B., Browne-Cooper, R. and Bush, B. 2002. Herpetofauna Survey of the Maralla Road Bushland. Western Australian Naturalist 23: 197-205 - get paper here
  • Montague, P.D. 1914. A report on the fauna of the Monte Bello Islands. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1914: 625-652 + plates - get paper here
  • Siebenrock, Friedrich 1892. Zur Kenntnis des Kopfskeletes der Scincoiden, Anguiden und Gerrhosauriden. Annalen des Königlichen Kaiserlichen Naturhistorischen Hofmuseum in Wien (Wien), 7 (3): 163-196 - get paper here
  • Singhal, Sonal; Huateng Huang, Maggie R. Grundler, María R. Marchán-Rivadeneira, Iris Holmes, Pascal O. Title, Stephen C. Donnellan, and Daniel L. Rabosky 2018. Does Population Structure Predict the Rate of Speciation? A Comparative Test across Australia’s Most Diverse Vertebrate Radiation. The American Naturalist - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1937. A review of the genus Lygosoma (Scincidae: Reptilia) and its allies. Records of the Indian Museum 39 (3): 213-234
  • Sternfeld, R. 1925. Beiträge zur Herpetologie Inner-Australiens. Abhandlungen Herausgegeben von der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, 38: 221—251
  • Storr G M 1969. The genus Ctenotus (Lacertilia: Scincidae) in the Eastern Division of Western Australia. J. Royal Soc. Western Australia 51: 97-109 - get paper here
  • Storr, G. M. 1974. The genus Ctenotus (Lacertilia: Scincidae) in the South-west and Eucla Divisions of Western Australia. J R. Soc. West. Aust. 56: 86-93 [1973]
  • Storr, G. M. 1975. The genus Ctenotus (Lacertilia: Scincidae) in the Kimberley and North-west Divisions of Western Australia. Rec. West. Aust. Mus. 3: 209-243 - get paper here
  • Storr, G. M., Smith, L. A. & Johnstone, R. E. 1981. Lizards of Western Australia. I. Skinks. Perth: University of Western Australia Press and Western Australian Museum, 200 pp.
  • Storr, G. M.; L. A. Smith, and R. E. Johnstone 1999. Lizards of Western Australia. I. Skinks. Revised Edition. Western Australian Museum
  • Wilson, S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
 
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