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Ctenotus duricola STORR, 1975

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Sphenomorphinae (Sphenomorphini), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Eastern Pilbara Lined Ctenotus, Pilbara Ctenotus 
SynonymCtenotus piankai duricola STORR 1975: 239
Ctenotus duricola — STORR et al. 1999
Ctenotus piankai duricola — COGGER 2000: 437
Ctenotus duricola — WILSON & SWAN 2010: 188
Ctenotus duricola — COGGER 2014: 492
Ctenotus duricola — RABOSKY et al. 2017 
DistributionAustralia (coast and hinterland of NW Western Australia)

Type locality: Mt Edgar, Western Australia, in 21°19' S, 120° 02' E.  
Reproductionoviparous (not imputed, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: WAM R17163, from Mt. Edgar, in 21° 19’ S, 120° 02’ E, W. A. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A small-bodied (to 59 mm SVL), elongate Ctenotus, nasals in contact, prefrontals in contact or not in contact, 26–29 mid-body scale rows, 20–25 compressed lamellae under toes with narrow callus, usually eight supralabials and supraciliary scales; pattern simple and full including six (occasionally eight) pale narrow longitudinal stripes on a blackish-brown ground color, dorsal stripes not continuing on head to snout, tail not red or blue, absence of upper lateral row of spots between dorsolateral and lateral stripes, dark vertebral stripe continues to anterior-most nuchal or parietal, parietals without blotches or spots, pale dorsolateral stripe continues anteriorly to eye, pale paravertebral stripes join on tail anterior to level of heel of extended hindlimb, lower labial scales variably stippled [Rabosky et la. 2017]. 
CommentThese forms have been recognized as full species, first by Storr et al. (1981), without comment, and later adopted in some field guides (Wilson & Knowles 1988; Ehmann 1992; Wilson & Swan 2003, 2014; Cogger 2014), but not others (Cogger 1992, 2000)

Habitat. Occurs on rocky slopes with spinifex and associated colluvial surfaces in the Pilbara, including mulga woodlands.

Distribution: This species is now confined to the eastern Pilbara region. The pattern of allopatric replacement of C. duricola with C. pallasotus sp. nov. within the Pilbara region corresponds to the supposition of Pepper et al. (2013) that the Fortescue River system provides a major biogeographic break within the region that can potentially drive allopatric speciation [Rabosky et al. 2017]. See map in Singhal et al. 2022: Fig. 2.

Limb morphology: 5 digits, 5 toes (Singhal et al. 2018, Cogger 2014) 
EtymologyThe specific name is from the Latin durus, meaning hard, and the suffix -cola, meaning to inhabit, in reference to this species occurrence and presumed preference for the hard surfaces of the Pilbara region. 
  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • Cogger,H.G. 1992. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 4th ed. Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Couper, P., Covacevich, J., Amey, A. & Baker, A. 2006. The genera of skinks (Family Scincidae) of Australia and its island territories: diversity, distribution and identification. in: Merrick, J.R., Archer, M., Hickey, G.M. & Lee, M.S.Y. (eds.). Evolution and Zoogeography of Australasian Vertebrates. Australian Scientific Publishing, Sydney, pp. 367-384
  • Ehmann, Harold 1992. Encyclopedia of Australian Animals: Reptiles. Angus & Robertson, Pymble, NSW, 495 pp.
  • Goodyear, Stephen E. and Eric R. Pianka 2011. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Diets of Sympatric Lizards (Genus Ctenotus) in the Great Victoria Desert, Western Australia. Journal of Herpetology 45 (3): 265-271. - get paper here
  • Pianka, E. R. 1969. Sympatry of desert lizards (Ctenotus) in Western Australia. Ecology 50: 1012-1030 - get paper here
  • RABOSKY, DANIEL L.; PAUL DOUGHTY, HUATENG HUANG 2017. Lizards in pinstripes: morphological and genomic evidence for two new species of scincid lizards within Ctenotus piankai Storr and C. duricola Storr (Reptilia: Scincidae) in the Australian arid zone. Zootaxa 4303 (1): 001–026 - get paper here
  • Singhal, S., Solis, E., & Rabosky, D. L. 2022. World Heritage lizard: population genetics and species status of the range-restricted Hamelin skink, Ctenotus zastictus. Bulletin of the Society of Systematic Biologists, 1(2) - get paper here
  • Singhal, Sonal; Huateng Huang, Maggie R. Grundler, María R. Marchán-Rivadeneira, Iris Holmes, Pascal O. Title, Stephen C. Donnellan, and Daniel L. Rabosky 2018. Does Population Structure Predict the Rate of Speciation? A Comparative Test across Australia’s Most Diverse Vertebrate Radiation. The American Naturalist - get paper here
  • Storr G M 1969. The genus Ctenotus (Lacertilia: Scincidae) in the Eastern Division of Western Australia. J. Royal Soc. Western Australia 51: 97-109 - get paper here
  • Storr G M 1970. The genus Ctenotus (Lacertilia: Scincidae) in the Northern Territory. J. Royal Soc. Western Australia 52: 97-108 [1969] - get paper here
  • Storr G M 1978. Notes on the Ctenotus (Lacertilia, Scincidae) of Queensland. Rec. West. Aust. Mus. 6 (3): 319-332 - get paper here
  • Storr, G. M. 1975. The genus Ctenotus (Lacertilia: Scincidae) in the Kimberley and North-west Divisions of Western Australia. Rec. West. Aust. Mus. 3: 209-243 - get paper here
  • Storr, G. M., Smith, L. A. & Johnstone, R. E. 1981. Lizards of Western Australia. I. Skinks. Perth: University of Western Australia Press and Western Australian Museum, 200 pp.
  • Storr, G. M.; L. A. Smith, and R. E. Johnstone 1999. Lizards of Western Australia. I. Skinks. Revised Edition. Western Australian Museum
  • Wilson, S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
  • Wilson, Stephen K. & Knowles, David G. 1988. Australia's Reptiles: A Photographic Reference to the Terrestrial Reptiles of Australia. Cornstalk Publishing, Pymble, NSW, 447 pp.
  • Wilson,S. & Swan, G. 2003. A complete guide to the Reptiles of Australia. Princeton University Press, 480 pp. [review in Sauria 26 (3): 32]
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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