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Ctenotus grandis STORR, 1969

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Sphenomorphinae (Sphenomorphini), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesCtenotus grandis grandis STORR 1968
Ctenotus grandis titan STORR 1980 
Common NamesE: Grand Ctenotus 
SynonymCtenotus grandis STORR 1969: 100
Ctenotus grandis — COGGER 1983: 146
Minervascincus grandis — WELLS & WELLINGTON 1985: 34
Ctenotus grandis — COGGER 2000: 426
Ctenotus grandis — WILSON & SWAN 2010

Ctenotus grandis titan STORR 1980
Minervascincus titan — WELLS & WELLINGTON 1985: 35
Ctenotus grandis titan — STORR et al. 1999 
DistributionAustralia (Northern Territory, South Australia?, Western Australia)

grandis: Tanami, Great Sandy, Gibson and Great Victoria Deserts.
titan: Pilbara and adjacent regions, Western Australia.

Type locality: 24 mi ENE of Lavation, in 28° 31’ S, 122'45’ E, W. A.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: WAM R30005
Holotype: WAM R61444, from 1 km S of Exmouth, W. A. [titan] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A very large Ctenotus with relatively stout body and short, thick appendages; dark dorsal stripes on a greenish ground (juveniles) or reddish ground (adults); sides dark with small white spots tending to be arranged in vertical bars; second loreal usually high, pentagonal, with angular apex. (Storr 1969)

Description. SVL (mm) : 39-106; males with everted hemipenes 89-99. Length of appendages (% SVL): tail 149-189; foreleg 20-28; hindleg 31-43. Nasals separated or in contact. Prefrontals in contact (occasionally narrowly separated). Supraoculars 4, first 3 in contact with frontal. Supraciliaries 6-10 (usually 7 or 8). Palpebrals 9-14 (mostly 10 or 11). Second loreal 0.7-1.6 times as wide as high. Upper labials 8 (rarely or 9). Ear lobules 4-8; usually obtuse in juveniles and acute in adults, third mostly largest. Nuchals 1-5. Midbody scale-rows 30 34. Lamellae under fourth toe 19-26, each with a dark-brown obtuse keel or narrow callus in juveniles, and a wide, flat, pale callus in adults. Juvenile coloration. Back, side of body and base of tail black, becoming greyish brown on head and remainder of tail. Six greenish-white stripes through centre of dorsal scales, as wide as interspaces. White centres of lateral scales vaguely arranged in vertical bars, inferiorly deflected forwards. (Storr 1969)

Adult coloration. Back dark brownish red (fading to pale brown in alcohol)'; head and neck olive brown; tail greyish brown. Blackish brown vertebral stripe from nape to proximal quarter of tail. On each side two dark-brown dorsal stripes, less prominent and narrower than vertebral stripe, sometimes broken and barely discernible. Side of body dark greyish-brown flecked with white; midlaterally and ventro-laterally white marks tend to cluster and to be arranged in vertical series. Side of tail with irregular white or buff vertical bars edged with dark brown. Upper surface of limbs reddish brown, variegated on hindleg (but not foreleg) with dark and pale brown. Lips pale, sutures margined with brown. Under surface whitish. (Storr 1969)

Updated diagnosis: Storr 1975: 217 
CommentAbundance: common, with more than 500 specimens collected (Pianka 2011)

Limb morphology: 5 digits, 5 toes (Singhal et al. 2018, Cogger 2014) 
EtymologyThe specific epithet, grandis, is a Latin adjective, meaning ‘big’ or ‘large’, in reference to the larger body size of this species compared to congeners. 
References
  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • Couper, P., Covacevich, J., Amey, A. & Baker, A. 2006. The genera of skinks (Family Scincidae) of Australia and its island territories: diversity, distribution and identification. in: Merrick, J.R., Archer, M., Hickey, G.M. & Lee, M.S.Y. (eds.). Evolution and Zoogeography of Australasian Vertebrates. Australian Scientific Publishing, Sydney, pp. 367-384
  • Ellis, Ryan J. 2015. Ctenotus grandis grandis (grand ctenotus) birfurcation. Herpetological Review 46 (2): 256 - get paper here
  • Pianka, E. R. 1969. Sympatry of desert lizards (Ctenotus) in Western Australia. Ecology 50: 1012-1030 - get paper here
  • Pianka, E. R. 1972. Zoogeography and speciation of Australian desert lizards: an ecological perspective. Copeia 1972 (1): 127-144 - get paper here
  • Punzo, Fred & Sonia Madragon 2002. Spatial learning in Australian skinks of the genus Ctenotus (Scincidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 23 (2): 233-238 - get paper here
  • Singhal, Sonal; Huateng Huang, Maggie R. Grundler, María R. Marchán-Rivadeneira, Iris Holmes, Pascal O. Title, Stephen C. Donnellan, and Daniel L. Rabosky 2018. Does Population Structure Predict the Rate of Speciation? A Comparative Test across Australia’s Most Diverse Vertebrate Radiation. The American Naturalist - get paper here
  • Storr G M 1969. The genus Ctenotus (Lacertilia: Scincidae) in the Eastern Division of Western Australia. J. Royal Soc. Western Australia 51: 97-109 - get paper here
  • Storr G M 1970. The genus Ctenotus (Lacertilia: Scincidae) in the Northern Territory. J. Royal Soc. Western Australia 52: 97-108 [1969] - get paper here
  • Storr G M 1980. The Ctenotus grandis species-group (Lacertilia: Scincidae). Rec. West. Aust. Mus. 8 (3): 415-422 - get paper here
  • Storr, G. M. 1975. The genus Ctenotus (Lacertilia: Scincidae) in the Kimberley and North-west Divisions of Western Australia. Rec. West. Aust. Mus. 3: 209-243 - get paper here
  • Storr, G. M., Smith, L. A. & Johnstone, R. E. 1981. Lizards of Western Australia. I. Skinks. Perth: University of Western Australia Press and Western Australian Museum, 200 pp.
  • Storr, G. M.; L. A. Smith, and R. E. Johnstone 1999. Lizards of Western Australia. I. Skinks. Revised Edition. Western Australian Museum
  • Wilson, S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
 
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