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Ctenotus pantherinus (PETERS, 1866)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Sphenomorphinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesCtenotus pantherinus acripes STORR 1975
Ctenotus pantherinus calx STORR 1970
Ctenotus pantherinus ocellifer STORR 1969
Ctenotus pantherinus pantherinus (PETERS 1866) 
Common NamesE: Leopard Ctenotus 
SynonymLygosoma (Hinulia) pantherinum PETERS 1866: 89
Egernia whitei carnarae KINGHORN 1931
Lygosoma (Hinulia) breviunguis KINGHORN 1932
Ctenotus pantherinus — COGGER 2000: 436
Ctenotus pantherinus — WILSON & SWAN 2010

Ctenotus pantherinus acripes STORR 1975
Magnuscincus acripes — WELLS & WELLINGTON 1985: 33
Ctenotus acripes — STORR et al. 1999
Ctenotus pantherinus acripes — COGGER 2000: 436

Ctenotus pantherinus calx STORR 1970
Ctenotus pantherinus calx STORR 1970: 99
Magnuscincus calx — WELLS & WELLINGTON 1985: 33
Ctenotus calx — STORR et al. 1999
Ctenotus pantherinus calx — COGGER 2000: 436

Ctenotus pantherinus ocellifer STORR 1969
Lygosoma ocellatum BOULENGER 1896: 233 (non Mocoa ocellata GARY 1845)
Lygosoma ocelliferum BOULENGER 1896 (nom. nov. pro L. ocellatum)
Lygosoma ocelliferum BOULENGER 1896: 342
Lygosoma (Hinulia) ocelliferum — STERNFELD 1925: 246
Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) ocelliferum — SMITH 1937: 220
Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) ocelliferum — GLAUERT 1960
Ctenotus pantherinus ocellifer — STORR 1970: 98
Magnuscincus ocellifer — WELLS & WELLINGTON 1985: 33
Ctenotus pantherinus ocellifer — STORR et al. 1999 
DistributionAustralia (New South Wales?, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia)

acripes: arid Nw Queensland and Barrow Island, Western Australia.
calx: N Australia from the Kimberleys to NW Queensland.
ocellifer: remainder of range.
pantherinus: SW Western Australia; Type locality: “Swan River (Australien)” [= Western Australia].  
TypesHolotype: ZMB 5379
Holotype: NMV D10810 (National Museum of Victoria) [calx]
Holotype: WAM R27843, collected by W.H. Butler on 2 June 1964 [acripes]
Holotype: ZMUO K2009 (= UZMO, Zoologisk Museum, University of Oslo, Norway) Roebuck Bay, WA, collected K. Dahl [ocellifer] 
DiagnosisDescription. Snout-vent length (mm): 36-90 (67.9). Length of appendages (% SVL): tail 152-186 (173), foreleg 22-31 (26.5), hindleg 39-45 (41.1). Nasals in contact. Prefrontals usually in contact, occasionally separated very narrowly. Supraoculars 4, first three in contact with frontal. Supraciliaries usually 7, occasionally 8, mean 7.2. Palpebrals 9-13 (11.4). Second loreal 0.8-1.4 (1.02) times as wide as high. Upper labials usually 8, occasionally 9, mean 8.1. Ear lobules 4-8 (5.7), obtuse in juveniles, subacute in adults. Nuchals usually 2 or 3, occasionally 1 or 4, mean 2.7. Midbody scale rows usually 32 or 34, seldom 30 or 36, mean 33.4. Lamellae under fourth toe 22-25 (23.6). Dorsal and lateral ground colour coppery brown, occasionally washed with olive-green. Black vertebral stripe usually extending from nape to base of tail, but sometimes disappearing at midback or becoming broken posteriorly. Usually 5, sometimes 4, longitudinal series of ocelli on each side of body, viz. a paravertebral, a dorsolateral and two or three lateral, each ocellus consisting of a short white bar margined on each side by a short black bar. White bars of dorsolateral and midlateral ocelli in some specimens almost continuous enough to form stripes (Storr 1973). 
CommentSynonymy partly after COGGER 1983.

Abundance: quite common, with more than 400 specimens collected (Pianka 2011)

Limb morphology: 5 digits, 5 toes (Singhal et al. 2018, Cogger 2014) 
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  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp. - get paper here
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  • Couper, P., Covacevich, J., Amey, A. & Baker, A. 2006. The genera of skinks (Family Scincidae) of Australia and its island territories: diversity, distribution and identification. in: Merrick, J.R., Archer, M., Hickey, G.M. & Lee, M.S.Y. (eds.). Evolution and Zoogeography of Australasian Vertebrates. Australian Scientific Publishing, Sydney, pp. 367-384
  • Dittmer, D. E., Chapman, T. L. & Bidwell, J. R. 2020. In the shadow of an iconic inselberg: Uluru’s shadow influences climates and reptile assemblage structure at its base. J. Arid Environ. 181, 104179 (2020) - get paper here
  • Glauert, L. 1960. Herpetological miscellanea. XII. The family Scincidae in Western Australia. Pt. 2. The genus Lygosoma. Western Australian Naturalist 7 (4): 81-99 - get paper here
  • Goodyear, Stephen E. and Eric R. Pianka 2011. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Diets of Sympatric Lizards (Genus Ctenotus) in the Great Victoria Desert, Western Australia. Journal of Herpetology 45 (3): 265-271. - get paper here
  • Hallermann, J. 2020. An annotated list of reptiles and amphibians from the 1905 Hamburg expedition to southwest Australia deposited in the Zoological Museum Hamburg. Evolutionary Systematics 4: 61 - get paper here
  • Kearney, S.G.; P.L. Kern, and A.S. Kutt 2020. A baseline terrestrial vertebrate fauna survey of Pullen Pullen; a significant conservation reserve in south-west Queensland. Australian Zoologist - get paper here
  • Peters. WILHELM C. H. 1866. Mittheilung über neue Amphibien (Amphibolurus, Lygosoma, Cyclodus, Masticophis, Crotaphopeltis) und Fische (Diagramma, Hapalogenys) des Kgl. Zoologischen Museums. Monatsber. Königl. Preuss. Akad. Wissensch. Berlin, 1866: 86-96. - get paper here
  • Prates, I., Singhal, S., Marchán-Rivadeneira, M. R., Grundler, M. R., Moritz, C., Donnellan, S., & Rabosky, D. 2021. Genetic and Ecogeographic Controls on Species Cohesion in Australia’s Most Diverse Lizard Radiation. American Naturalist - get paper here
  • Punzo, Fred & Sonia Madragon 2002. Spatial learning in Australian skinks of the genus Ctenotus (Scincidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 23 (2): 233-238 - get paper here
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  • Singhal, Sonal; Huateng Huang, Maggie R. Grundler, María R. Marchán-Rivadeneira, Iris Holmes, Pascal O. Title, Stephen C. Donnellan, and Daniel L. Rabosky 2018. Does Population Structure Predict the Rate of Speciation? A Comparative Test across Australia’s Most Diverse Vertebrate Radiation. The American Naturalist - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1937. A review of the genus Lygosoma (Scincidae: Reptilia) and its allies. Records of the Indian Museum 39 (3): 213-234
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  • Wilson, S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
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