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Cuora pani SONG, 1984

IUCN Red List - Cuora pani - Critically Endangered, CR

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Higher TaxaGeoemydidae (Geoemydinae), Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles)
Common NamesE: Pan's Box Turtle
G: Pans Scharnierschildkröte
Chinese: 潘氏闭壳龟 
SynonymCuora pani SONG 1984
Cuora chriskarannarum ERNST & MCCORD 1987: 624
Cuora pani — ERNST & BARBOUR 1989: 150
Cuora pani — OBST 2003: 17
Cuora pani — TTWG 2014
Cuora pani — TTWG 2021 
DistributionChina (Shaanxi, Hubei, Chongqing, Sichuan; Type locality: "Xujiaba (elevation 420 m) of Pingli county in Shanxi Province" People's Republic of China

chriskarannarum: China (Ta Lau Shan, Chinsha, Yunnan Province); Type locality: Ta Lau Shan, Yunnan Province, China (23°30'N, 102°25'E)  
TypesHolotype: IZSX (also as SIZ) 80170 (Cuora pani)
Holotype: USNM 266162 [Cuora chriskarannarum] 
CommentCuora chriskarannarum has been synonymized with Cuora pani by McCord & Iverson (1991). Little or no mitochondrial DNA variation was found among the morphologically distinct species Cuora aurocapitata, Cuora pani, and Cuora trifasciata (STUART & PARHAM 2004).

Cuora aurocapitata and Cuora pani are very closely related or even conspecific (McCord & Iverson 1991, Stuart & Parham 2004) and some authors treat both taxa as subspecies (Artner 2004, Blanck & Tang 2005).

According to SCHILDE (2004) the type locality of this species is not known. C. trifasciata and C. pani are paraphyletic (SPINKS et al. 2007). 
EtymologyNot given in original description but probably named after Pan Lei, a fellow Chinese herpetologist. 
  • Anonymous 2016. Testudinate China [in both English and Chinese] Testudinate Industry Branch of the China Fishery Association, published on occasion of WCH8; author not explicitly stated, 54 pp.
  • Artner, H. 2004. Haltung und Nachzucht von Pans Scharnierschildkröte Cuora pani pani SONG, 1984 und der Goldkopf-Scharnierschildkröte Cuora pani aurocapitata. Emys 11 (1): 4-21
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Blanck, T., Protiva, T., Zhou, T., Li, Y., Crow, P., and Tiedemann, R. 2017. New subspecies of Cuora cyclornata (Blanck, McCord & Le, 2006), Cuora trifasciata (Bell, 1825) and Cuora aurocapitata (Luo & Zong, 1988). Sichuan Journal of Zoology 36 (4):368–385
  • Buskirk, James R. 1989. New locality records for Chinese non-marine chelonians [Chinemys reevesii nigricans, Cistoclemmys flavomarginata, Cuora galbinifrons hainanensis pani, Mauremys mutica, Clemmys Oscadia sinensis, Sacalia bealei quadriocellata, Platysternon megacephalum Chinese Herpetological Research 2 (2): 65-68
  • Dalton, Rex 2003. Mock turtles. Nature 423: 219-220 - get paper here
  • de Bruin R 1988. Twee nieuwe Cuora-soorten uit China. Lacerta 47 (1): 4-6 - get paper here
  • Ernst, C.H. 1988. Cuora mccordi, a new chines box turtle from Guangxi Province. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 101: 466-470 - get paper here
  • Ernst, C.H., and W.P. McCord. 1987. Two new turtles from southeast Asia. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 100 (3): 624-628. - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Feng, Zhao-jun; Wang, Jian; Liu, Xi; Zhou, Xiang; Lu, Ai-ping; Zhao, Yan-yu; Zou, Shou-chang. 2006. Research and protection of golden-headed box turtle (Cuora aurocapitata). Sichuan Journal of Zoology 25(2):326-328. [In Chinese] - get paper here
  • Fritz U; Obst F J 1998. Neue Schildkröten aus Südostasien Teil I. Platysternidae und Bataguridae (Cuora). Sauria 20 (4): 9–22 - get paper here
  • Hennen, U. 2001. Categories of the Red List. Radiata 10 (3): 23-28
  • Ihlow, F., C. Spitzweg, M. Vamberger, L. Augustine, C. Hagen, A. Davis, B. Leprince, P. Wagner, Pham V. T. & U. Fritz 2023. Molecular differentiation and conservation of the Indochinese box turtles Cuora galbinifrons, Cuora bourreti, and Cuora picturata. Salamandra 59 (4): - get paper here
  • Li, D. 2000. [first record of Cuora pani from Sichuan Province]. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 19 (3): 156 - get paper here
  • Luo,B. & Zong,Y. 1988. A new species of Cuora - Cuora aurocapitata. Acta Herpetologica Sinica 3: 13-15 - get paper here
  • McCord,W.P. & Iverson,J.B. 1991. A new box turtle of the genus Cuora (Testudines: Emydidae) with taxonomic notes and a key to the species. Herpetologica 47 (4): 407-420 - get paper here
  • McLaughlin, Connor J. and C. Tristan Stayton 2016. Convergent Evolution Provides Evidence of Similar Radiations in Shell Shape in the Turtle Families Emydidae and Geoemydidae. Herpetologica 72 (2): 120-129. - get paper here
  • Meier, E. 1999. Das Schildkröten-Erhaltungszuchtprojektder ZGAP. Elaphe 7 (4): 78-80
  • Meier, E. 2004. Das Internationale Zentrum für Schildkrötenschutz (IZS) füllt sich mit Leben. Elaphe 12 (2): 60-64
  • Obst, F.J. 2003. Sumpfschildkröten. Draco 4 (13): 4-18 - get paper here
  • Parham, James Ford and Dong Li. 2000. A new locality for Cuora pani Song 1984 with comments on its known range. Asiatic Herpetological Research 8: 111-113 [1999] - get paper here
  • Schilde, M. 2004. Asiatische Sumpfschildkröten - Die Familie Geoemydidae in Südostasien, China und Japan. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Song Ming-Tao. 1984. A new species of the turtle genus Cuora (Testudoformes: Testudinidae) [In Chinese with English summary]. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 9 (3): 330-332 - get paper here
  • Song, Ming-Tao 2001. Translation: A new species of the turtle genus Cuora (Testudoformes: Testudinidae). Asiatic Herpetological Research. 9: 142-144 - get paper here
  • Spinks, Phillip Q.; Robert C. Thomson, YaPing Zhang, Jing Che, Yonghua Wu, H. Bradley Shaffer 2012. Species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships in the critically endangered Asian box turtle genus Cuora. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 63 (3): 656-667 - get paper here
  • Spinks, Phillip Q.; Shaffer, H. Bradley 2007. Conservation phylogenetics of the Asian box turtles (Geoemydidae, Cuora): mitochondrial introgression, numts, and inferences from multiple nuclear loci. Conservation Genetics 8(3):641-657 - get paper here
  • Stuart, B.L. and James Ford Parham 2004. Molecular phylogeny of the critically endangered Indochinese box turtle (Cuora galbinifrons). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 31 (1): 164-177 - get paper here
  • Tiedemann, R., A. R. R. Schneider, K. Havenstein, T. Blanck, E. Meier, M. Raffel et al. 2014. New microsatellite markers allow high-resolution taxon delimitation in critically endangered Asian box turtles, genus Cuora. Salamandra 50 (3): 139-146 - get paper here
  • TTWG [Peter Paul van Dijk, John B. Iverson, Anders G.J. Rhodin, H. Bradley Shaffer, and Roger Bour] 2014. Turtles of the World, 7th Edition: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution with Maps, and Conservation Status. 000.v7. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v7.2014 - get paper here
  • TTWG; Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., Bour, R., Fritz, U., Georges, A., Shaffer, H.B., and van Dijk, P.P. 2021. Turtles of the World: Annotated Checklist and Atlas of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status (9th Ed.). In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., van Dijk, P.P., Stanford, C.B., Goode, E.V., Buhlmann, K.A., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Chelonian Research Monographs 8:1–472. doi:10.3854/crm.8.checklist.atlas.v9.2021. - get paper here
  • Wang, Kai; Jinlong Ren, Hongman Chen, Zhitong Lyu, Xianguang Guo Ke Jiang, Jinmin Chen, Jiatang Li, Peng Guo, Yingyong Wang, Jing Che 2020. The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China. Biodiversity Science 28 (2): 189-218 - get paper here
  • Werning, H. 2007. Das internationale Zentrum für Schildkrötenschutz nimmt immer weiter Fahrt auf. Reptilia (Münster) 12 (63): 3-5 - get paper here
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