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Cyclemys oldhamii GRAY, 1863

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Higher TaxaGeoemydidae (Geoemydinae), Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles)
Common NamesE: Oldham’s Leaf Turtle, Dark-throated Leaf Turtle
G: Oldhams Dornrandschildkröte
E: (tcheponensis) Stripeneck Leaf Turtle
G: (tcheponensis)Indochinesische Dornschildkröte
Chinese: 欧氏摄龟 
SynonymCyclemys oldhami GRAY 1863
Cyclemys oldhami — GRAY 1864: 109
Cyclemys oldhami — ANDERSON 1872
Cyclemys dhor shanensis ANNANDALE 1918
Cyclemys shanensis tcheponensis — ANNANDALE 1918 (? see note).
Geoemyda tcheponensis BOURRET 1939
Cyclemys tiannanensis KOU 1989
Cyclemys tiannamensis DAS 1991 (ex errore)
Geoemyda tcheponensis — FRITZ et al. 1999
Cyclemys tcheponensis — ZIEGLER 2002: 140
Cyclemys shanensis — GUICKING et al. 2002 (revalidated)
Cyclemys oldhami — LEHR & HOLLOWAY 2003
Cyclemys shanensis — SCHILDE 2004
Cyclemys shanensis tcheponensis — HENNIG 2004
Cyclemys oldhami tcheponensis — FRITZ et al. 2009
Cyclemys oldhami — FRITZ et al. 2009
Cyclemys cf. oldhami — JESTRZEMSKI et al. 2013
Cyclemys oldhami — TTWG 2017: 95
Cyclemys oldhamii — TTWG 2021 
DistributionBurma, Thailand, Vietnam, China ? (Yunnan ?); Indonesia (Sumatra)

shanensis: from C Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia.

Type locality: Mergui and Siam; restricted to Mergui by SMITH 1931.

tcheponensis: N Vietnam, Laos, N Thailand, Cambodia (likely); Type locality: "Haute Se-Bang-Hien, (centre de la Chaine annamitique)," Vietnam.  
TypesLectotype: BMNH 1947.3.5.63 (ex 1856.5.6.1) designatd by FRITZ et al. 1997.
Holotype: NUH T43 [tcheponensis] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Adult: Dark coloured, resembling the other dark- bellied species but carapace rectangular (Fig. 11) and crown of the head light brown with distinctive small dark spots. Head and neck stripes absent in adults from the western part of the range, present in adults from the eastern part of the range. Palate and tongue in alcohol grey. Hatchling (Fig. 9): Brownish plastron covered by extensive dark central figure; ocellate pattern at submarginal seams; distinctive head and neck stripes present, throat dark. For maximum size and comparison with diagnostic characters of other species, see Table 3 in Fritz et al. 2008: 10. 
CommentHybridization: SCHILDE et al. (2004) reported a hybrid between Ocadia sinensis x Cyclemys shanensis.

Subspecies: GUICKING et al. revalidate C. shanensis and distinguish two subspecies, C. s. shanensis and C. s. tcheponensis. Cyclemys oldhamii, C. shanensis, and C. tcheponensis differ morphologically only by the retention or loss of head stripes with maturity (Fritz et al., 1997; Guicking et al., 2002, Stuart & Fritz, 2008). TTWG 2017 lists shanensis as synonym of oldhami.

Distribution: Not in India (Tarai), Nepal, Malaysia (W Borneo), Indonesia (Sumatra, Java) fide TTWG 2014. The type locality of Cyclemys tiannamensis (”Nanliang, Mengla County, Xishuangbanna of Yunnan Province, China”) is questioned by Fritz et al. 1997 who speculate that the specimen probably has been bought on a market. Hallermann et al. 2001 reported this species from Uttar Pradesh near the Nepali border.

Synonymy: Geoemyda tcheponensis was removed from the synonymy of Cyclemys dentata by McMorris (1976).

NCBI taxID (tcheponensis): 260618

Habitat: freshwater (Rivers, swamps) 
EtymologyNamed after Richard Oldham (1837-1864), a gardener at Kew. 
  • Anderson, J. 1872. On some Persian, Himalayan, and other Reptiles. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1872: 371-404 - get paper here
  • Annandale,N. 1918. Chelonia and batrachia of the Inlé Lake. Records of the Indian Museum 14: 67-69 - get paper here
  • Auliya, M. 2006. Taxonomy, Life History, and conservation of giant reptiles in west Kalimantan. Natur und Tier Verlag, Münster, 432 pp. - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598 - get paper here
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Fritz, U.; D Guicking, M Auer, R. S Sommer, M Wink, A. K Hundsdörfer 2008. Diversity of the Southeast Asian leaf turtle genus Cyclemys: how many leaves on its tree of life? Zoologica Scripta doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2008.00332. - get paper here
  • Fritz,U., Gaulke,M. & Lehr,E. 1997. Revision der südostasiatischen Dornschildkröten-Gattung Cyclemys Bell 1834, mit Beschreibung einer neuen Art. Salamandra 33 (3): 183-212 - get paper here
  • Gray, J.E. 1863. Observations on the box tortoises, with the descriptions of three new Asiatic species. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1863: 173-179 - get paper here
  • Gray,J.E. 1864. Observations on the box tortoises, with the description of three new asiatic species. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) 13: 105-111 - get paper here
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  • Guicking, D. & Fritz, U.; Wink, M. & Lehr, E. 2002. New data on the diversity of the Southeast Asian leaf turtle genus Cyclemys BELL, 1834. Molecular results (Reptilia: Testudines: Geoemydidae). Faun. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 23 (4): 75-86 - get paper here
  • Hallermann J., N. B. Ananjeva and N.L.Orlov. 2001. On a remarkable collection of reptiles and amphibians collected by the German Indian Expedition 1955-1958. Russ. J. Herpetol. 8 (1): 25-34 - get paper here
  • Jestrzemski, Daniel; Stefan Schütz, Truong Quang Nguyen, Thomas Ziegler 2013. A survey of amphibians and reptiles in Chu Mom Ray National Park, Vietnam, with implications for herpetofaunal conservation. Asian Journal of Conservation Biology, 2 (2): 88–110 - get paper here
  • Kästle , W., Rai, K. & Schleich, H.H. 2013. FIELD GUIDE to Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. ARCO-Nepal e.V., 625 pp. - get paper here
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  • Lehr, E. & Holloway, R. 2003. Turtle trade in Cambodia. Reptilia (GB) (30): 64-71 - get paper here
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  • Rai, Kalu Ram 2004. Ecological Distribution Of Cyclemys Oldhamii (Gray 1863) From Nepal. Our Nature 2: 7-12
  • Schilde, M. 2003. Die Dornschildkröten der Gattung Cyclemys BELL, 1834. Draco 4 (13): 37-42 - get paper here
  • Schilde, M. 2004. Asiatische Sumpfschildkröten - Die Familie Geoemydidae in Südostasien, China und Japan. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Schilde, Maik, Dana Barth and Uwe Fritz 2004. An Ocadia sinensis x Cyclemys shanensis hybrid (Testudines: Geoemydidae). Asiatic Herpetological Research 10: 120-125 - get paper here
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  • Stuart, B.L., Rowley, J.J.L., Neang, T., Emmett, D.A. & Sitha, Som 2010. Significant new records of amphibians and reptiles from Virachey National Park, northeastern Cambodia. Cambodian Journal of Natural History 2010(1): 38–47 - get paper here
  • Stuart, Bryan L.; Fritz, Uwe. 2008. Historical DNA from museum type specimens clarifies diversity of Asian leaf turtles (Cyclemys). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 94(1):131-141 - get paper here
  • Suzuki, Dai; Kengo Fuse, Mitsuhiro Aizu, Satoshi Yoshizawa, Wataru Tanaka, Kunio Araya, and Bounthob Praxaysombath 2015. Reptile Diversity in Food Markets in Laos. Current Herpetology 34 (2): 112-119 - get paper here
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