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Cyclura carinata HARLAN, 1824

IUCN Red List - Cyclura carinata - Critically Endangered, CR

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Higher TaxaIguanidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Turks & Caicos Iguana, Turks Island Iguana, Turks and Caicos Rock Iguana
G: Wirtelschwanz 
SynonymCyclura carinata HARLAN 1824: 250
Iguana (Cyclura ) Carinata — GRAY 1831 (in CUVIER; edit. GRIFFITH)
Cyclura (Cyclura ) carinata — FITZINGER 1843 (partim)
Cyclura carinata — COPE 1886: 262
Cyclura carinata — BOULENGER 1885: 193
Cyclura carinata carinata — BARBOUR 1935
Cyclura carinata bartschi COCHRAN 1931
Cyclura carinata — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 388 
DistributionTurks I [HR 31: 253], Caicos I [HR 31: 253], Bahama I, Mayaguana I (E Bahamas)

carinata: Turks and Caicos Is. Type locality: "Turk's Island."

bartschi: Bahama Is.: Booby Cay east of Mayaguana I.  
TypesHolotype: Unlocated.
Holotype: USNM 81212 [bartschi] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size small (SVL in males to 360 mm, in females to 292 mm); no enlarged frontal scale; azygous scales in prefrontal suture absent; 7-13 (mode 9) scales between anterior canthal scales; first prefrontal never in contact with precanthal; 6-11 (mode 9) vertical loreal rows; 11-17 (mode 15) suboculars to anterior border of tympanum; no clearly demarcated sublabials; 1-4 (mode 2) postmentals; 26-48 femoral pores in single row; dorsal crest scales 11-20 between occiput and shoulder, 39-71 between shoulder and sacrum, 6-15 between sacrum and first caudal verticil, total dorsal crest scales between occiput and first caudal verticil 61-101; dorsal crest scales on neck usually higher than body crest scales, body crest scales usually higher than postsacral crest scales; 46-74 scales in fifth caudal verticil; 16-25 dorsolateral body scales in naris-eye distance; rostral scale always in contact with nasals. Dorsum gray, variegated with dull tan on back and sides or with paler gray to cream on head and neck; venter bluish, greenish, or dirty gray; dorsal crest scales of males blue-gray; juveniles drab gray with 4-6 brown, anterior crossbars not extending onto sides but forming an obscure series of inconspicuous bars which fade laterally, venter unpattemed and unstreaked but stippled or mottled dark gray (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 388). 
CommentFor illustrations see Barbour and Noble, 1916; Auffenberg, 1975; Schwartz and Carey, 1977; Iverson, 1979.

BRYAN et al. (2007) found insufficient genetic differentiation between the subspecies of C. carinata and suggested to synonymize them.

Type species: Cyclura carinata HARLAN 1824 is the type species of the genus Cyclura HARLAN 1824 ((designated by FITZINGER 1843).

Synonymy: The genus Cyclura Warren, 1897 (Insecta: Drepanidae; Novit. zool. 4 : 14) is a junior Homonym. 
  • Alberts, A.C.; Carter, R.L.; Hayes, W.K. & Martins, E.P. (eds.) 2004. Iguanas - Biology and Conservation. University of California Press, 356 pp. - get paper here
  • Auffenberg, W. 1975. The Dragon Isles: West Indian rock iguanas. Bahamas Nat., summer 1975:2-7.
  • Avery, D. F.; Tanner, W. W. 1971. Evolution of the iguanine lizards (Sauria, Iguanidae) as determined by osteological and myological characters. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin 12 (3): 1-79
  • Barbour, T. 1916. Additional notes on West Indian reptiles and amphibians. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 215-220. - get paper here
  • Barbour, T. and Noble, G.K. 1916. A revision of the lizards of the genus Cyclura. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 60 (4): 139-64. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Bryan, J.J.; Gerber, G.P.; Welch, M.E. & Stephen, C.L. 2007. Re-evaluating the Taxonomic Status of the Booby Cay Iguana, Cyclura carinata bartschi. Copeia 2007 (3): 734-739 - get paper here
  • Buckley, Larry J.; Kevin de Queiroz, Tandora D. Grant, Bradford D. Hollingsworth, John B. Iverson (Chair, <br />Stesha A. Pasachnik, and Catherine L. Stephen (Iguana Taxonomy Working Group, ITWG 2016. A Checklist of the Iguanas of the World (Iguanidae; Iguaninae). Herp. Cons. Biol. 11 (Monograph 6) - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1886. On the species of Iguaninae. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 23 (122): 261-271 - get paper here
  • Harlan, R. 1824. Description of two species of Linnaean Lacerta, not before described, and construction of the new genus Cyclura. J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia [1] 4 (2): 242-251. - get paper here
  • Iverson, J.B. 1979. Behavior and ecology of the rock iguana Cyclura carinata. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum 24(3): 175-358. - get paper here
  • Lemm, J.M. & Alberts, A.C. 2012. Cyclura. Elsevier / Academic Press, 221 pp.
  • Malone,C.L.; Wheeler,T.; Taylor, J.F. & Davis,S.K. 2000. Phylogeography of the Caribbean Rock Iguana (Cyclura): implications for conservation and insights on the biogeographic history of the West Indies. Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 17 (2): 269 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Carey, M. 1977. Systematics and evolution in the West Indian iguanid genus Cyclura. Stud. Fauna Curaçao and Carib. Is. 53(173):15-97. - get paper here
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