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Cyclura cychlura (CUVIER, 1829)

IUCN Red List - Cyclura cychlura - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaIguanidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesCyclura cychlura figginsi BARBOUR 1923
Cyclura cychlura cychlura (CUVIER 1829)
Cyclura cychlura inornata BARBOUR & NOBLE 1916 
Common Namescychlura: Andros Island Iguana
figginsi: Exuma Island Iguana
inornata: Allen’s Island Iguana 
SynonymIguana cychlura CUVIER 1829: 45
Iguana cychlura — CUVIER 1831: 133
Cyclura cychlura — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS 1975
Cyclura cychlura — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 394
Cyclura cychlura — LEMM & ALBERTS 2012

Cyclura cychlura cychlura CUVIER 1829
Cyclura baelopha COPE 1861: 123 (nomen nudum)
Cyclura baelopha COPE 1862
Cyclura baeolopha [sic] — COPE 1886: 263
Cyclura baeolopha — BARBOUR 1904: 58
Cyclura cychlura cychlura- SCHWARTZ & THOMAS 1975
Cyclura cychlura cychlura — LEMM & ALBERTS 2012
Cyclura cychlura cychlura — BUCKLEY et al. 2016

Cyclura cychlura figginsi BARBOUR 1923
Cyclura figginsi BARBOUR 1923
Cyclura cychlura figginsi — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS 1975
Cyclura cychlura figginsi — LEMM & ALBERTS 2012
Cyclura cychlura figginsi — BUCKLEY et al. 2016
Cyclura figginsi — HEDGES et al. 2019

Cyclura cychlura inornata BARBOUR & NOBLE 1916
Cyclura inornata BARBOUR & NOBLE 1916
Cyclura cychlura inornata — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS 1975
Cyclura cychlura inornata — LEMM & ALBERTS 2012
Cyclura cychlura inornata — BUCKLEY et al. 2016
Cyclura inornata — HEDGES et al. 2019 
DistributionBahamas (Andros I, Exuma Cays)

Cyclura cychlura cychlura: Bahama Is.: Andros I. Type locality: "Caroline"; restricted by Schwartz and Carey, 1977, to Andros Island, Bahama Islands.

figginsi: Bahama Is.: central and southern Exuma Cays.

inornata: northern Exuma Cays.  
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 2367 (also indicated in MNHN catalogue as type of Cyclura harlani Duméril & Bibron)
Holotype: ANSP 8120, Andros Island [baelopha]
Holotype: MCZ 17745 [figginsi]
Holotype: MCZ 11062 [inornata] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size large (SVL in males to 476 mm, in females to 465 mm); 2-4 (mode 3) scale rows between frontal and interparietal; azygous scales often present (mode 1) in prefrontal suture; 3-7 (mode 4) scales between anterior canthals; 6-12 (mode 8) scales bordering frontal; first prefrontal almost always in contact with precanthal; 4-9 (mode 6) vertical loreal rows; 9-17 (mode 16) suboculars to anterior border of tympanum; 5-9 (mode 7) sublabials to eye center; 1-2 (mode 2) rows of scales between infralabials and sublabials; 1-4 (mode 1) postmentals; 33-48 femoral pores in a single row; dorsal crest scales 13-30 between occiput and shoulder, 37-83 between shoulder and sacrum, 10-22 between sacrum and first caudal verticil, total dorsal crest scales beween occiput and first caudal verticil 67-118; dorsal crest scales on neck always higher than body crest scales, body crest scales usually higher than postsacral crest scales; 40-74 scales around tail in fifth caudal verticil; 16-26 dorsolateral body scales in naris-eye distance; rostral scale always in contact with nasals. Dorsum: (1) black with extensive orange markings on lower sides, head, and dorsal crest scales; (2) black with cream mottling and no body vermiculations; (3) dull gray-brown with white dorsal crest scales, head scales black with vague orange suffusions; juveniles with 5-7 pale chevrons, apices pointed anteriorly, alternating with dark chevrons, the pale chevrons obscured laterally by dark stippling or dotting, the dark chevrons extending to ventral midline or not, the lateral dark chevrons not strongly diagonal; dorsal crest scales and head pale (some shade of orange?) in 1 population (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 394). 
CommentFor illustrations see Barbour and Noble, 1916 (as C. baeolopha); Auffenberg, 1976; Carey, 1976 (as C. baeolopha, C.figginsi); Schwartz and Carey, 1977. 
  • Alberts, A.C.; Carter, R.L.; Hayes, W.K. & Martins, E.P. (eds.) 2004. Iguanas - Biology and Conservation. University of California Press, 356 pp. - get paper here
  • Aplasca AC, Iverson JB, Welch ME, Colosimo G, Hekkala ER. 2016. Genetic diversity and structure in the Endangered Allen Cays Rock Iguana, Cyclura cychlura inornata. PeerJ 4:e1793 - get paper here
  • Auffenberg, W. 1976. Bahama rock iguanas, part two. Bahamas Nat., summer 1976:9-16. - get paper here
  • Barbour, T. 1904. Batrachia and Reptilia from the Bahamas. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 46: 55—61 - get paper here
  • Barbour, T. and Noble, G.K. 1916. A revision of the lizards of the genus Cyclura. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 60 (4): 139-64. - get paper here
  • Barbour, Thomas 1923. Another new Bahaman Iguana. Proc. New England zool. Club 8: 107-109, 2 plates - get paper here
  • Buckley, Larry J.; Kevin de Queiroz, Tandora D. Grant, Bradford D. Hollingsworth, John B. Iverson (Chair, <br />Stesha A. Pasachnik, and Catherine L. Stephen (Iguana Taxonomy Working Group, ITWG 2016. A Checklist of the Iguanas of the World (Iguanidae; Iguaninae). Herp. Cons. Biol. 11 (Monograph 6) - get paper here
  • Carey, W.M. 1976. Iguanas of the Exumas. Wildlife: 59-61.
  • Cope, E.D. 1861. [A large specimen ... of the iguana of Andros Island]. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1861: 123 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1886. On the species of Iguaninae. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 23 (122): 261-271 - get paper here
  • Cuvier, G. 1831. The Animal Kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization, by the Baron Cuvier, ... with additional descriptions of all the species hitherto named, and of many not before noticed, by Edward Griffith... and others. Vol. 9. Whittaker, Treacher and Co., London, 481 pp. - get paper here
  • Cuvier, G. J. L. N. F. D. 1829. Le Regne Animal Distribué, d'apres son Organisation, pur servir de base à l'Histoire naturelle des Animaux et d'introduction à l'Anatomie Comparé. Nouvelle Edition [second edition]. Vol. 2. Les Reptiles. Déterville, Paris, i-xvi, 1-406 - get paper here
  • Hedges SB, Powell R, Henderson RW, Hanson S, and Murphy JC 2019. Definition of the Caribbean Islands biogeographic region, with checklist and recommendations for standardized common names of amphibians and reptiles. Caribbean Herpetology 67: 1–53
  • Hedrick, A; Iverson, J B & Smith, G R; 2019. Cyclura cychlura inornata (Allen Cays Rock Iguana) Injury from tourists. Herpetological Review 50 (3): 572-573 - get paper here
  • Hines, Kirsten N. 2016. Food Habits of Northern Bahamian Rock Iguanas (Cyclura cychlura) in the Exuma Islands, with a <br />Dietary Review of Rock Iguanas (Genus Cyclura). Herp. Cons. Biol. 11 (Monograph 6) - get paper here
  • Hines, Kirsten N. 2017. On the distribution of Northern Bahamian Rock Iguanas (Cyclura cychlura) in the Exuma Islands. Herpetological Review 48 (1): 28-31 - get paper here
  • Iverson, J.B. 2007. Juvenile Survival in the Allen Cays Rock Iguana (Cyclura Cychlura Inornata) Copeia 2007 (3): 740-744. - get paper here
  • Iverson, J.B. & M.R. Mamula 1989. Natural growth in the Bahaman Iguana Cyclura cychlura Copeia 1989 (2): 502-505. - get paper here
  • Iverson, J.B.; Hines, K.N. & Valiulis, J.M. 2004. The nesting ecology of the Allen Cays Rock Iguana, Cyclura cychlura inornata in the Bahamas. Herpetological Monographs 18: 1-36 - get paper here
  • Iverson, John B., Francois, Kristoff, Jollay, Jill, Buckner, Sandra D. and Knapp, Charles R. 2017. Cyclura cychlura figginsi (Exuma Rock Iguana) Allogrooming. Herpetological Review 48 (1): 188 - get paper here
  • JUNGNICKEL, J. 2009. Cyclura cychlura inornata of Leaf Cay, Bahamas. Sauria 31 (1): 39-40 - get paper here
  • Knapp, C.R. & A.K. Owens 2008. Nesting Behavior and the Use of Termitaria by the Andros Iguana (Cyclura cychlura cychlura) Journal of Herpetology 42 (1): 46-53. - get paper here
  • Knapp, C.S. & Malone, C.L. 2003. Patterns of reproductive success and genetic variability in a translocated iguana population. Herpetologica 59 (2): 195-202 - get paper here
  • Knapp, Chuck; Buckner, Sandra 1998. Geographic Distribution. Cyclura cychlura figginsi. Herpetological Review 29 (1): 51 - get paper here
  • Lemm, J.M. & Alberts, A.C. 2012. Cyclura. Elsevier / Academic Press, 221 pp.
  • Luther, B., Knapp, C. R., Greene, D. U., Buckner, S. D. & Iverson, J. B. 2012. Cyclura cychlura figginsi (Exuma Island rock iguana) rodent kill. Herpetological Review 43: 483 - get paper here
  • Malone, Catherine L.; Charles R. Knapp, Jeremy F. Taylor & Scott K. Davis 2003. Genetic consequences of Pleistocene fragmentation: Isolation, drift, and loss of diversity in rock iguanas (Cyclura). Conservation Genetics 4: 1–15
  • Malone,C.L.; Wheeler,T.; Taylor, J.F. & Davis,S.K. 2000. Phylogeography of the Caribbean Rock Iguana (Cyclura): implications for conservation and insights on the biogeographic history of the West Indies. Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 17 (2): 269 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Carey, M. 1977. Systematics and evolution in the West Indian iguanid genus Cyclura. Stud. Fauna Curaçao and Carib. Is. 53(173):15-97. - get paper here
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