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Cyclura pinguis BARBOUR, 1917

IUCN Red List - Cyclura pinguis - Critically Endangered, CR

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Higher TaxaIguanidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Stout Iguana, Anegada Rock Iguana, Anegada Ground Iguana
G: Anegada-Wirtelschwanzleguan 
SynonymCyclura pinguis BARBOUR 1917: 100
Cyclura mattea MILLER 1918
Cyclura portoricensis BARBOUR 1919
Cyclura pinguis — SCHWARTZ & CAREY 1977
Cyclura pinguis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 398
Cyclura pinguis — LEMM & ALBERTS 2012 
DistributionBritish Virgin Islands (Anegada Island), Puerto Rico Bank

Type locality: Anegada Island, British Virgin Islands.  
TypesHolotype: MCZ 12082.
Holotype: MCZ 12460 [portoricensis]
Holotype: USNM 59358 [Cyclura mattea] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size large (SVL in males to 539 mm, in females to 476 mm); 6-7 scales between frontal and interparietal; no azygous scales in prefrontal suture; 10-12 (modes 10 and 11) scales between anterior canthals; 7-9 scales bordering frontal; first prefrontal never in contact with precanthal; 3-10 (mode 4) vertical loreal rows; 12-14 (mode 13) sublabials to eye center; 2-3 (mode 2) rows of scales between infralabials and sublabials; 1-6 (modes 2 and 3) postmentals; 38-58 femoral pores in single row; dorsal crest scales 9-15 between occiput and shoulder, 31-40 between shoulder and sacrum, 9-12 between sacrum and first caudal verticil, total dorsal crest scales between occiput and first caudal verticil 54--63; dorsal crest scales on neck very low and rather inconspicuous, never higher than body crest scales, body crest scales usually equal to postsacral crest scales; 37-40 scales around tail in fifth caudal verticil; 6-8 dorsolateral scales in naris-eye distance; rostral scale separated from nasals by 1-2 (mode 2) rows of smaller scales. Dorsum brown to gray with vertical rows of turquoise to green dots; head olive-brown, throat and gular pouch lighter; tail blue dorsally, fading to dull brown posteriorly; limbs blue above, each scale bordered in black, tan to cream below; dorsal crest scales blue to black; juveniles presumably like adults (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 398). 
CommentFor illustrations see Grant, 1937; Carey, 1975 a; Philibosian and Yntema, 1977; Schwartz and Carey, 1977; MacLean, 1982; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985.

Synonymy: Cyclura portoricensis BARBOUR 1919, known only from bones, may be a synonym of C. pinguis, fide Schwartz & Thomas 1975: 113. 
  • Alberts, A.C.; Carter, R.L.; Hayes, W.K. & Martins, E.P. (eds.) 2004. Iguanas - Biology and Conservation. University of California Press, 356 pp. - get paper here
  • Barbour, T. 1917. Notes on the herpetology of the Virgin Islands. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 30: 97-103. - get paper here
  • Barbour, Thomas 1919. A new rock iguana from Porto Rico. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 32: 145-148 + 1 plate - get paper here
  • Buckley, Larry J.; Kevin de Queiroz, Tandora D. Grant, Bradford D. Hollingsworth, John B. Iverson (Chair, <br />Stesha A. Pasachnik, and Catherine L. Stephen (Iguana Taxonomy Working Group, ITWG 2016. A Checklist of the Iguanas of the World (Iguanidae; Iguaninae). Herp. Cons. Biol. 11 (Monograph 6) - get paper here
  • Carey, W.M. 1972. The Herpetology of Anegada, British Virgin Islands. Carib. J. Sci. 12(1/2): 79-89.
  • Carey, W.M. 1975. The rock iguana, Cyclura pinguis, on Anegada, British Virgin Islands, with notes on Cyclura ricordi and Cyclura cornuta of Hispaniola. Bull. Fonda State Mus. Biol. Sci. 19(4):189-233.
  • García, Miguel A. and Glenn P. Gerber 2016. Conservation and Management of Cyclura Iguanas in Puerto Rico. Herp. Cons. Biol. 11 (Monograph 6) - get paper here
  • Grant, C. 1937. Herpetological notes with new species from the American and British Virgin Islands, 1936. J. Dept. Agric. Puerto Rico 21: 503-522.
  • Lemm, J.M. & Alberts, A.C. 2012. Cyclura. Elsevier / Academic Press, 221 pp.
  • MacLean, W.P. 1982. Reptiles and amphibians of the Virgin Islands. MacMillan Caribbean, London: vii + 54 pp.
  • Malone,C.L.; Wheeler,T.; Taylor, J.F. & Davis,S.K. 2000. Phylogeography of the Caribbean Rock Iguana (Cyclura): implications for conservation and insights on the biogeographic history of the West Indies. Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 17 (2): 269 - get paper here
  • Miller, Gerrit S., Jr 1917. Mammals and reptiles collected by Theodoor de Booy in the Virgin Islands [Cyclura mattea n. sp.]. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 54 (2244): 507-511, 1 plate - get paper here
  • Mitchell, N.C. 1999. Effect of Introduced Ungulates on Density, Dietary Preferences, Home Range, and Physical Condition of the Iguana (Cyclura pinguis) on Anegada Herpetologica 55 (1): 7-17. - get paper here
  • Philibosian, R. and Yntema, J.A. 1977. Annotated checklist of the birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians of the Virgin Islands & Puerto Rico. Information Services, Frederiksted, St. Croix, 48 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Carey, M. 1977. Systematics and evolution in the West Indian iguanid genus Cyclura. Stud. Fauna Curaçao and Carib. Is. 53(173):15-97. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and R. Thomas. 1975. A checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ. 1:1-216. - get paper here
  • Werning, H. 2011. Einer der seltensten Leguane der Welt - der Anegada-Wirtelschwanzleguan, Cyclura pinguis. Iguana Rundschreiben 23 (2): 13-25
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