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Cyrtodactylus agamensis (BLEEKER, 1860)

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Agam Bow-fingered Gecko 
SynonymGymnodactylus agamensis BLEEKER 1860: 328
Cyrtodactylus agamensis — RÖSLER et al. 2007
Cyrtodactylus agamensis — RÖSLER & GLAW 2008
Cyrtodactylus agamensis — HARVEY et al. 2015
Cyrtodactylus agamensis — MILTO & BEZMAN-MOSEYKO 2021 
DistributionIndonesia (Sumatra: Maninjau, Agam)

Type locality: Agam, Sumatra.  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.9.7.44, female, E.W.A. Lüdeking, 1859 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Adult males reaching 74.9 mm SVL, adult females reaching 86.8 mm SVL; 10–13 supralabials, 9–12 infralabials; tubercles of dorsum moderate in size with no intervening smaller tubercles; tubercles on ventral surfaces of forelimbs, in gular region absent, tubercles present in ventrolateral body fold; 31–37 paravertebral tubercles; 17–21 longitudinal rows of dorsal tubercles; 50–67 rows of ventral scales; 21–26 subdigital lamellae on 4th toe; 9–10 femoro-precloacal pores in males; dorsum not bearing a scattered pattern of white tubercles; 6–7 dark body bands with uneven margins often broken into separate spots; 10–12 dark, caudal bands on original tail; white caudal bands in adults infused with dark pigment (Table 1, Milto & Bezman-Moseyko 2021).

Coloration in life. Dorsal ground color of head, body, limbs, and tail beige-gray; nape with 5 irregular blotches; narrow, dark brown nuchal band extends from posterior margin of one eye to posterior margin of other eye, forms broken V-shaped figure on neck; 2nd neck band separated into 2 bands; 6 or 7 narrow, dark colored dorsal bands between limb insertions with uneven edges and often broken into 2 blotches; 1st band terminates at shoulders, last band terminates on sacrum; 5 or 6 dark gray ragged and poorly distinguishable bands on forelimbs and hind limbs; 10 to 12 wide, dark bands approximately twice the width of white bands extend onto tail; all bands encircle tail; ventral surfaces of head, limbs, and tail white; gular scales and abdomen immaculate, white (Milto & Bezman-Moseyko 2021).

Comparisons. Cyrtodactylus agamensis is distinguished from all Sumatran congeners by a high number of ventral scales and a low number of femorocloacal pores with the exception of C. quadrivirgatus Taylor, 1962. It is separated from C. lateralis (Werner, 1896) in having banded body coloration, 9–10 vs. 13 femorocloacal pores and having 10–12 vs. 7–9 caudal bands. It differs from C. marmoratus Gray, 1831 in having 9–10 vs. 15–26 femorocloacal pores and 50–67 vs. 40–50 ventral scales and by a banded dorsal pattern. It is further separated from C. psarops Harvey et al., 2015 in having 9–10 vs. 28–32 femorocloacal pores, 50–67 vs. 38–49 ventral scale and 17–21 vs. 23–26 rows of body tubercles. It is further separated from C. quadrivirgatus in having 50–67 vs. 34–42 ventral scales, in having 21–26 vs. 19–20 subdigital lamellae under the 4th toe and in lacking a striped dorsal pattern. Cyrtodactylus agamensis differs from most closely distributed and possibly parapatric species C. semicinctus Harvey et al., 2015 (Table 2) by a lower number of rows of body tubercles (17–21 vs. 24–27), a higher number of ventral scales (50–67 vs. 33–44), and a fewer number of femorocloacal pores in males (9–10 vs. 36–38) and in females (0–7 vs. 17–19) (Milto & Bezman-Moseyko 2021). 
CommentRÖSLER et al. 2007 revalidated Cyrtodactylus agamensis but their diagnosis of this species is fairly vague (differs from other species ”by being smaller in SVL and having more ventrals...” etc.). Their key states “67” ventrals” for agamensis but this seems to be based on a single female.

Abundance: Cyrtodactylus agamensis is known from a single female, the holotype (Rösler et al. 2007, Hartmann et al. 2016, Meiri et al. 2017) and 6 additional specimens found by Milto & Bezman-Moseyko 2021. 
  • Bleeker, P. 1860. Reptilien van Agam. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indie, Batavia, 20: 325-329 - get paper here
  • HARTMANN, LUKAS; SVEN MECKE, MAX KIECKBUSCH, FELIX MADER, HINRICH KAISER 2016. A new species of bent-toed gecko, genus Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae), from Jawa Timur Province, Java, Indonesia, with taxonomic remarks on C. fumosus (Müller, 1895). Zootaxa 4067 (5): 552–568 - get paper here
  • HARVEY, MICHAEL B.; KYLE A. O’CONNELL, GABRIEL BARRAZA, AWAL RIYANTO, NIA KURNIAWAN & ERIC N. SMITH 2015. Two new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Southern Bukit Barisan Range of Sumatra and an estimation of their phylogeny. Zootaxa 4020 (3): 495–516 - get paper here
  • MECKE, SVEN; MAX KIECKBUSCH, LUKAS HARTMANN, HINRICH KAISER 2016. Historical considerations and comments on the type series of Cyrtodactylus marmoratus Gray, 1831, with an updated comparative table for the bent-toed geckos of the Sunda Islands and Sulawesi. Zootaxa 4175 (4): 353–365 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Milto, K.D. and O.S. Bezman-Moseyko 2021. Herpetofauna of the Maninjau caldera, West Sumatra, Indonesia, with special account to geckos. Proceedings of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Science 325(4): 430–446. - get paper here
  • Rösler, H. & Glaw, F. 2008. A new species of Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Malaysia including a literature survey of mensural and meristic data in the genus. Zootaxa 1729: 8–22 - get paper here
  • Rösler, H. & S. J. Richards & R. Günther 2007. Bemerkungen zur Morphologie und Taxonomie der östlich der Wallacea vorkommenden Geckos der Gattung Cyrtodactylus GRAY, 1827, mit Beschreibungen von zwei neuen Arten (Reptilia: Sauria: Gekkonidae). Salamandra 43 (4): 193-230 - get paper here
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