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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Bintang Lowland Bent-toed Gecko 
Cyrtodactylus bintangrendah — GRISMER & QUAH 2019 
DistributionPeninsular Malaysia (Penang)

The species is presumed to range throughout lowland forests up to 450 meters in elevation through the foothills and lower slopes surrounding the Bintang Mountain Range. Along the west side of the mountains it ranges from at least Bukit Mertajam, Seberang Perai, Penang in the south to Bukit Palong, Kedah in the north (Fig. 3). East of the Bintang range, it is known only from the Lenggong Valley, Perak (Fig. 3). Grismer (2011:424) reported lowland populations of C. pulchellus sensu strictu from much farther south in Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, and Johor which may indicate that C. bintangrendah sp. nov. shares a similar distribution pattern proposed for other lowland species found west of the Banjaran Titiwangsa (Grismer 2011).

Type locality: Bukit Mertajam, Seberang Perai, Penang, Peninsular Malaysia (05°35.698 N, 100°49.253 E) at 451 m elevation.  
Reproductionoviparous (not imputed, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: ZRC 2.6973, adult male, collected on 29 October 2011 by E. S. H. Quah, Fatim, S. B. M., Nor Amira, B. A. R. and Yusof O. Paratypes.—Paratypes LSUHC 9974–76 (adult female, adult male, and adult female respectively) were collected from Lenggong, Perak. ZRC 2.6974 (adult male) was collected on 1 October 2010 by E. S. H. Quah from the type locality. Adult male (LSUHC 10520) bears the same collection data as the holotype. Juvenile female (ZRC 2.6975) collected on 20 June 2010 by E. S. H. Quah from Bukit Palong, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia (5°36.140 N 100°55.190 E) at 238 meters in elevation. Adult male (LSUHC 10331) collected on 26 July 2011 by E. S. H. Quah at Ulu Paip, Kedah (5°24.630 N 100°38.419 E) at 200 meters above sea level as estimated from Google Earth. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Adult males reaching 114.4 mm SVL, adult females reaching 103.1 mm SVL; 8–12 supralabials, 8–10 infralabials; tubercles of dorsum small to moderate with no intervening smaller tubercles; no tubercles on ventral surfaces of forelimbs, gular region, or in ventrolateral body fold; 33–44 paravertebral tubercles; 22–25 longitudinal rows of dorsal tubercles; 31–39 rows of ventral scales; 20–24 subdigital lamellae on fourth toe; 41–46 femoro-precloacal pores in males; dorsum not bearing a scattered pattern of white tubercles; four, rarely five, body bands in adults lacking lightened centers and light colored tubercles; band to interspace ratio 0.50–1.25; 8–14 dark caudal bands on original tail; light caudal bands in adults not heavily infused with dark pigment; and posterior portion of tail in hatchlings and juveniles banded not white. These characters are scored across all species of the Cyrtodactylus pulchellus complex in Table 6 [GRISMER et al. 2012]. 
EtymologyThe word bintangrendah is a combination of the Malaysian words bintang meaning star and rendah meaning low and is in reference to the lowland regions surrounding the Bintang Mountain Range wherein this species occurs; bintangrendah is a noun in apposition and is thus invariable. 
  • GOLDBERG, S., BURSEY, C.R. & GRISMER, L.L. 2018. Notizen zur Fortpflanzung des Bintang-Bogenfingergeckos Cyrtodactylus bintangrendah (Squamata, Gekkonidae) von der Malaiischen Halbinsel. Sauria 40 (2): 84-85 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; & EVAN S. H. QUAH 2019. An updated and annotated checklist of the lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, and their adjacent archipelagos. Zootaxa 4545 (2): 230–248 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; PERRY L. WOOD, JR, SHAHRUL ANUAR, MARTA S. GRISMER, EVAN S. H. QUAH, MATTHEW L. MURDOCH, MOHD ABDUL MUIN, HAYDEN R. DAVIS, CÉSAR AGUILAR, RANDY KLABACKA, ANTHONY J. COBOS, ANCHALEE AOWPHOL, JACK W. SITES, JR 2016. Two new Bent-toed Geckos of the Cyrtodactylus pulchellus complex from Peninsular Malaysia and multiple instances of convergent adaptation to limestone forest ecosystems. Zootaxa 4105 (5): 401-429 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; PERRY L. WOOD, JR., EVAN S. H. QUAH, SHAHRUL ANUAR, MOHD. ABDUL MUIN, MONTRI SUMONTHA, NORHAYATI AHMAD, AARON M. BAUER, SANSAREEYA WANGKULANGKUL, JESSE L. GRISMER & OLIVIER S. G. PAUWELS 2012. A phylogeny and taxonomy of the Thai-Malay Peninsula Bent-toed Geckos of the Cyrtodactylus pulchellus complex (Squamata: Gekkonidae): combined morphological and molecular analyses with descriptions of seven new species. Zootaxa 3520: 1–55
  • Grismer, L.L.; PERRY L. WOOD, SHAHRUL ANUAR, EVAN S. H. QUAH, MOHD ABDUL MUIN, MAKETAB MOHAMED, CHAN KIN ONN, ALEXANDRA X. SUMARLI, ARIEL I. LOREDO, HEATHER M. HEINZ 2014. The phylogenetic relationships of three new species of the Cyrtodactylus pulchellus complex (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from poorly explored regions in northeastern Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 3786 (3): 359–381 - get paper here
  • Termprayoon, K., Rujirawan, A., Grismer, L. L., Wood Jr, P. L., & Aowphol, A. 2021. Taxonomic reassessment and phylogenetic placement of Cyrtodactylus phuketensis (Reptilia, Gekkonidae) based on morphological and molecular evidence. ZooKeys, 1040, 91 - get paper here
  • WOOD JR, PERRY L.; L. LEE GRISMER, MOHD ABDUL MUIN, SHAHRUL ANUAR, JAMIE R. OAKS 2020. A new potentially endangered limestone-associated Bent-toed Gecko of the Cyrtodactylus pulchellus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) complex from northern Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 4751 (3): 437–460 - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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