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Cyrtodactylus chaunghanakwaensis GRISMER, WOOD JR, THURA, QUAH, MURDOCH, GRISMER, HERR, LIN & KYAW, 2018

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Chaunghanakwa Hill bent-toed gecko 
SynonymCyrtodactylus chaunghanakwaensis GRISMER, WOOD JR, THURA, QUAH, MURDOCH, GRISMER, HERR, LIN & KYAW 2018 
DistributionMyanmar (Mon: Mawlamyine District)

Type locality: Chaunghanakwa Hill, 50 km south-east of Mawlamyine, Mawlamyine District, Mon State, Myanmar (16.18456°N, 97.98814°E; 14 m in elevation  
TypesHolotype: LSUHC 13305, Adult male, collected on 13 May 2017 at 2000 hrs by Myint Kyaw Thura, Mark W. Herr, L. Lee Grismer, Perry L. Wood, Jr., Matthew L. Murdoch, Evan S.H. Quah, and Htet Kyaw.
Paratypes: Adult male paratypes LSUHC 13295, 13298, 13300, 13302, 13308, and 13312–14 and adult female paratypes LSUHC 13294, 13296–97, 13299, 13301, 13303–04, 13306–07, 13309–11, 13315–16, 13321 bear the same collecting data as the type series. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Cyrtodactylus chaunghanakwaensis sp. nov. differs from all congeners by having the unique combination of a maximum SVL of 76.3 mm; 8–11 supralabials; 7–9 infralabials; 31–36 paravertebral tubercles; 17–22 longitudinal rows of body tubercles; 23–27 long- itudinal rows of ventral scales ventral scales; relatively long digits with 6–9 expanded subdigital lamellae proximal to the digital inflexion on the fourth toe, 11–14 unmodified distal subdigital lamellae, 18–21 total subdigital lamellae; dorsal body tubercles low, weakly keeled in adults; tubercles extendind beyond base of tail; enlarged femoral and precloacal scales continuous; enlarged proximal femoral scales greater than one-half the size of enlarged distal femoral scales; 27–32 enlarged femoral scales; 27–32 femoral pores in males; 9–11 precloacal pores in males; femoral and precloacal pore-bearing scales continuous; 9–12 enlarged precloacal scales; two or three rows of enlarged post- precloacal scales; medial subcaudal scales 3 times as wide as long, extending onto lateral surface of tail; top of head darkly mottled, no yellow reticulum; nuchal loop not divided medially, no pronounced anterior azygous notch, posterior border jagged; 5–7 jagged, dark, dorsal bands bearing paravertebral elements, wider than interspaces with variably lightened centres, variably edged with white tubercles; nape band present; dark mark- ings in dorsal interspaces; ventrolateral folds not whitish; anterodrosal margins of thighs and brachia darkly pigmented; 10–14 light caudal bands bearing dark markings, not encircling tail; 11–15 dark caudal bands wider than light caudal bands; and mature regenerated tail not spotted. These characters are scored against all other species in the sinyineensis group (Table 4) and all other Burmese species of the Indochinese clade in Grismer et al. (2017a, table 8).

Variation (Figures 8–11 in Grismer et al. 2018): The paratypes closely approach the holotype in most aspects of colouration and pattern. The overall pattern of LSUHC 13297, 13303, 13313, and 13306 is not as contrasted and is less boldly marked. That of LSUHC 13300 is more contrasted with less interspace mottling. Juvenile specimens LSUHC 13316–18 and 13320 are much less boldly marked and generally yellowish overall with light-brown dorsal bands and weak head mottling. As lizards grow, the dark markings expand and turn to dark brown, giving the lizards a much darker overall appearance. LSUHC 13294 is leucistic and bears a general magenta hue with tan speckling on the body and poorly defined caudal bands (Figure 10). Additional variation in meristic and mensural characters is presented in Table 8.

Comparisons: Ordination of the meristic characters along PC1 and PC2 indicate that Cyrtodactylus chaunghanakwaensis sp. nov. is generally well separated from all other species in morphospace. In the DAPC, two outlying individuals fall within the 95% confidence ellipse of C. naungkayaingensis sp. (Figure 3). Characters that differentiate C. chaungha- nakwaensis sp. nov. from C. bayinnyiensis sp. nov. are presented above in the compar- isons sections for the latter. Cyrtodactylus chaunghanakwaensis sp. nov. differs from all other species of the sinyineensis group by having low, weakly keeled body tubercles as opposed to raised, strongly keeled tubercles. It differs further from C. aequalis, C. naungkayainensis sp. nov., C. sinyineenesis and C. welpyanensis in the males having continuous pore-bearing femoral and precloacal scales as opposed to these scales being discontinuous. It differs further from C. sinyineenesis and C. welpyanensis in that the dorsal bands bear paravertebral elements as opposed to lacking them. It differs further from C. aequalis and C. sinyineensis in having a smaller maximum SVL (76.3 mm vs 87.0– 91.6 mm, collectively). The phylogenetic analyses recover C. chaunghanakwaensis sp. nov. as the sister species of C. dammathetensis sp. nov. (Figure 6), from which it differs by having significantly (p < 0.05) different mean values of dorsal body bands, enlarged femoral scales, longitudinal rows of body tubercles, enlarged precloacal scales, and expanded proximal subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe (Table 4). Table 4 lists other meristic characters of C. chaunghanakwaensis sp. nov. that differ significantly from other species of the sinyineensis group. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet, chaunghanakwaensis, is a noun in apposition in reference to the type locality of Chaunghahakwa Hill. 
  • CHOMDEJ, S., SUWANNAPOOM, C., PAWANGKHANANT, P., PRADIT, W., NAZAROV, R. A., GRISMER, L. L., & POYARKOV, N. A. 2020. A new species Cyrtodactytlus Gray (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from western Thailand and the phylogenetic placement of C. inthanon and C. doisuthep. Zootaxa 4838 (2): 179-209 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Perry L. Wood Jr., Myint Kyaw Thura, Evan S.H. Quah, Matthew L. Murdoch, Marta S. Grismer, Mark W. Herr, Aung Lin & Htet Kyaw 2018. Three more new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Salween Basin of eastern Myanmar underscore the urgent need for the conservation of karst habitats. Journal of Natural History, 52:19-20, 1243-1294 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; PERRY L. WOOD, JR., EVAN S.H. QUAH, MARTA S. GRISMER, MYINT KYAW<br />THURA, JAMIE R. OAKS & AUNG LIN 2020. Two new species of Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from a karstic archipelago in the Salween Basin of southern Myanmar (Burma). Zootaxa 4718 (2): 151–183 - get paper here
  • Keating, S. E., Blumer, M., Grismer, L. L., Lin, A., Nielsen, S. V., Thura, M. K., ... & Gamble, T. 2021. Sex Chromosome Turnover in Bent-Toed Geckos (Cyrtodactylus). Genes, 12(1), 116 - get paper here
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