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Cyrtodactylus fraenatus (GÜNTHER, 1864)

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Subspecies 
Common NamesSri Lanka Bow-fingered Gecko
G: Grosser Waldgecko 
SynonymGymnodactylus fraenatus GÜNTHER 1864: 113
Gymnodactylus fraenatus — FERGUSON 1877: 12
Gymnodactylus frenatus — BOULENGER 1885: 42 (nom. emend.)
Gymnodactylus frenatus — SMITH 1935: 49
Gymnodactylus frenatus — TAYLOR 1953: 1536
Cyrtodactylus frenatus — UNDERWOOD 1954: 475
Gymnodactylus (Cyrtodactylus) fraenatus — WERMUTH 1965: 52
Gymnodactylus frenatus — MANTHEY 1981
Cyrtodactylus fraenatus — RÖSLER 1995: 109
Cyrtodactylus (Cyrtodactylus) fraenatus — RÖSLER 2000: 65
Cyrtodactylus ramboda BATUWITA & BAHIR 2005
Cyrtodactylus fraenatus — KARUNARATHNA & AMARASINGHE 2011 
DistributionSri Lanka

Type locality: Ceylon.

ramboda: Sri Lanka; Type locality: Ramboda near Gerandi Ella falls, Nuwara Eliya District (07°02’30”N,80°41’20”E, elevation 780 m).  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesLectotype: BMNH 53.2.12.6 (designated by BATUWITA & BAHIR 2005)
Holotype: NMSL (= WHT) 6050, adult male (99.1 mm SVL), (regenerated tail, bearing a mid-ventral incision) [ramboda] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Cyrtodactylus fraenatus is distinguished from all other congeners by a combination of the following characters:subdigital lamellae beneath proximal portion of 4 th digit of manus 7 –9,beneath distal portion 11 –15; basal lamellae under proximal portion as wide as digit width;subdigital lamellae beneath proximal portion of 4 th digit of pes 8 –11, beneath distal portion 13 –16; no precloacal groove; 4 –6 precloacal pores in males;claws long (ClawLM/ ForeaL ratio 0.07 –0.14; ClawLP/CrusL ratio 0.07 –0.12);mental subpentagonal,with concave posterio-lateral borders; 27 –35 scales across mid-body between ventrolateral folds; dorsal scales across mid-body between ventrolateral folds 70 –74;17 –22 tubercles on paravertebral row; 5 –9 rows of weakly convex dorsal tubercles at mid-body; ventral scales imbricate with rounded posterior edge. Original tail longer than body (TailL/SVL ratio range 1.08 –1.16). Cyrtodactylus fraenatus resembles C. ramboda new species and C .subsolanus new species. It may be distinguished from the former by having 17 –23 paravertebral tubercles (vs.38 – 44 in C.ramboda ), and from the latter by its distinct dorsal bands (vs.indistinct dorsal bands in C .subsolanus).

Original description in Amarasinghe et al. 2009.

Diagnosis (ramboda). Cyrtodactylus ramboda is distinguished from all other congeners by the combination of following characters: subdigital lamellae beneath proximal portion of 4th digit of manus, 7–8; beneath distal portion, 11–1; basal lamellae under proximal portion as wide as digit width.Subdigital lamellae beneath proximal portion of 4th digit of pes, 8–10; beneath distal portion, 1–14; noprecloacal groove; 6 precloacal pores in male holotype; claws moderately long (ClawLM/ ForeaL ratio 0.10–0.11; ClawLP/CrusL ratio 0.11–0.1); mental subpentagonal, with concave posterior lateral borders. Scales across mid-body between ventrolateral folds, 28–2. Dorsal scales across mid-body between ventrolateral folds, 55–6. Tubercles on paravertebral row, 8–44. Rows of dorsal tubercles at mid-body, 9. Ventral scales imbricate to subimbricate with rounded posterior edges. Original tail subequal to body (TailL/ SVL ratio range 1.0). Cyrtodactylus ramboda new species resembles C. fraenatus, from which it may be distinguished as follows: 8–44 paravertebral tubercles row vs. 17–2 in C. fraenatus (BATUWITA & BAHIR 2005). 
CommentSynonymy: Amarasinghe et al. 2022 synonymized C. ramboda with C. fraenatus.

NCBI taxonID: 2823432 [ramboda] 
EtymologyC. ramboda was named after the type locality. 
References
  • Amarasinghe, A. A. T., A. M. Bauer, I. Ineich, J. Rudge, M. M. Bahir & D. E. Gabadage 2009. The original descriptions and figures of Sri Lankan gekkonid lizards (Squamata: Gekkonidae) of the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Taprobanica 1 (2): 83-106
  • Amarasinghe, A. A. Thasun; Suranjan Karunarathna, Patrick D. Campbell, A. K. Anusha Gayan, W. D. Bhanuka Ranasinghe, Anslem De Silva & Zeeshan A. Mirza 2022. The hidden diversity and inland radiation of Sri Lanka’s ground-dwelling geckos of the genus Cyrtodactylus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae). Systematics and Biodiversity, 20:1, 1-25, - get paper here
  • Batuwita, S. & M. M. Bahir 2005. Description of five new species of Cyrtodactylus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) from Sri Lanka. Raffles Bull. Zool., Suppl. No. 12: 351-380 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Ferguson, W. 1877. Reptile fauna of Ceylon. Letter on a collection sent to the Colombo Museum. Herbert, Ceylon
  • Grismer, L. L., Wood, P. L., Poyarkov, N. A., Le, M. D., Kraus, F., Agarwal, I., ... & Grismer, J. L. 2021. Phylogenetic partitioning of the third-largest vertebrate genus in the world, Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Reptilia; Squamata; Gekkonidae) and its relevance to taxonomy and conservation. Vertebrate Zoology 71: 101–154 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1864. The Reptiles of British India. London (Taylor & Francis), xxvii + 452 pp. - get paper here
  • Karunarathna, Suranjan D. M. S. and A. A. Thasun Amarasinghe 2011. A PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF THE REPTILE FAUNA IN NILGALA FOREST AND ITS VICINITY, MONARAGALA DISTRICT, SRI LANKA. Taprobanica 3 (2): 69-76 - get paper here
  • Krysko, K. L.; Rehman, H. & Auffenberg, K. 2007. A new species of Cyrtopodion (Gekkonidae: Gekkoninae) from Pakistan. Herpetologica 63 (1): 100-113 - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. 1981. Die Echsen des Ceylonischen Regenwaldes und seiner Randgebiete. Sauria 3 (2): 25-35 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Rösler, H. 2000. Kommentierte Liste der rezent, subrezent und fossil bekannten Geckotaxa (Reptilia: Gekkonomorpha). Gekkota 2: 28-153
  • Rösler, H. 2000. Die postanale Beschuppung bei Cyrtodactylus GRAY 1827 und Cyrtopodion FITZINGER 1843 - funktionelle und taxonomische Aspekte (Sauria: Gekkonidae). Gekkota 2: 154-207
  • Rösler, H. & Glaw, F. 2008. A new species of Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Malaysia including a literature survey of mensural and meristic data in the genus. Zootaxa 1729: 8–22 - get paper here
  • Rösler, Herbert 1995. Geckos der Welt - Alle Gattungen. Urania, Leipzig, 256 pp.
  • Smith, M.A. 1935. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptiles and Amphibia, Vol. II. Sauria. Taylor and Francis, London, 440 pp.
  • Somaweera, R. & Somaweera, N. 2009. Lizards of Sri Lanka: a colour guide with field keys. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 304 pp.
  • Taylor, E.H. 1953. A review of the lizards of Ceylon. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 35 (12): 1525-1585 - get paper here
  • Underwood, Garth 1954. On the classifcation and evolution of geckos. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 124 (3): 469-492
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