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Cyrtodactylus khasiensis (JERDON, 1870)

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Khasi Hills bent-toed Gecko 
SynonymPentadactylus Khasiensis JERDON 1870
Gymnodactylus khasiensis — ANDERSON 1871
Pentadactylus Khasiensis — ANDERSON 1872: 379
Gymnodactylus khasiensis — BOULENGER 1885: 44
Cyrtodactylus khasiensis — UNDERWOOD 1954
Gymnodactylus khasiensis — WERMUTH 1965: 55
Cyrtodactylus khasiensis — DAS 1997
Cyrtodactylus khasiensis — DAS & PALDEN 2000
Tenuidactylus khasiensis
Cyrtodactylus (Cyrtodactylus) khasiensis — RÖSLER 2000: 64
Cyrtodactylus khasiensis — AGARWAL et al. 2018 
DistributionIndia (Assam, Darjeeling, Khasi Hills, Mizoram), Bhutan

Type locality: Khasi Hills, Assam. Lectotype locality: “Khasi Hills”, Meghalaya state, India.  
TypesLectotype. BMNH 1906.8.10.4 (former ZSIK 6198), adult female, designated by Agarwal et al. 2018, collected by T.C. Jerdon, exchanged from the Indian Museum (ZSIK) in 1906, collected ca. 1870 (Jerdon 1870; BMNH specimen catalogue). Paralectotypes. ZSIK 6199, adult female, ZSIK 6197, adult male, collected along with lectotype. Syntypes (originally): ZSI 6197 and 6199 
DiagnosisDiagnosis and comparisons with regional congeners. A moderate sized Cyrtodactylus, snout-vent length to 81.1 mm; body relatively stout; limbs and digits moderately short; two pairs of well-developed postmentals, inner pair longer than outer and in broad contact behind mental; 19–23 longitudinal rows of keeled, oblong dorsal tubercles; 42–53 paravertebral tubercles; 34–42 mid-body ventral scale rows; no precloacal groove; 10–12 precloacal pores in a single series in males. Six to seven basal and 13–15 apical subdigital lamellae beneath Digit IV of pes with 1–3 intervening rows of non-lamellar granular scales. Subcaudal scalation of original tail with median series of paired enlarged plates, covering underside of tail entirely toward tail-tip. Dorsal pattern of approximately nine pairs of irregular, small dark spots. Original tail with approximately 11 dark bands (first two similar to dorsal spots), alternating with light brown proximally, and white distally beyond the 5th dark band.
Cyrtodactylus khasiensis differs from the following species in males having 10–12 precloacal pores and no femoral pores: C. fasciolatum, C. gubernatoris, C. russelli Bauer and C. slowinskii Bauer (precloacal and femoral pores present); C. gansi Bauer and C. tamaiensis (Smith) (continuous series of ≥16 PcFP); C. mandalayensis Mahony, and C. markuscombaii (Darevsky, Helfenberger, Orlov & Shah) (≤8 femoral pores). Cyrtodactylus khasiensis is most similar morphologically to C. ayeyarwadyensis Bauer from Myanmar, C. martinstolli (Darevsky, Helfeberger, Orlov & Shah) from Nepal, and the new species from Tripura allied to C. ayeyarwadyensis, described below. Cyrtodactylus khasiensis differs from C. ayeyarwadyensis by males having fewer precloacal pores (maximum 12 vs. 28) and from C. martinstolli by males having more precloacal pores (maximum 12 vs. 8), and from the new species from Tripura by precloacal pore configuration (10–12 precloacal pores vs. 29–37 precloacofemoral pores). Comparisons with the new species are provided following the descriptions. Cyrtodactylus khasiensis can be diagnosed from C. cayuensis comb. nov. by precloacal pore count (10–12 vs. 6–9) and mid-body ventral scale rows =(34–42 vs. 28–34) (Table 2 in Agarwal et al. 2018 summarizes diagnostic characters). )from Agarwal et al. 2018). 
CommentDistribution: Has been erroneously reported from Bangladesh. Probably not in N Burma (Pangnamdim) [MAHONY 2009]. Reports from China represent a new species, C. dianxiensis LIU & RAO 2021.

Group: The C. khasiensis group consists of 7 species: C. ayeyarwadyensis, C. guwahatiensis, C. kazirangaensis, C. khasiensis, C. septentrionalis, C. tripuraensis and C. urbanus (Purkayashta et al. 2020).

Subspecies: Cyrtodactylus khasiensis tamaiensis SMITH 1940 and C. k. cayuensis have been elevated to full species status.

Synonymy: Gymnodactylus himalayicus ANNANDALE 1906 has been revalidated from the synonymy of C. khasiensis by Agarwal et al. 2018. 
EtymologyNamed after the type locality. 
  • AGARWAL, ISHAN; STEPHEN MAHONY, VARAD B. GIRI, R. CHAITANYA, AARON M. BAUER 2018. Two new species of bent toed geckos, Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Northeast India with comments on name-bearing types from the region. Zootaxa 4420 (3): 334-356 - get paper here
  • Anderson, J. 1872. On some Persian, Himalayan, and other Reptiles. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1872: 371-404 - get paper here
  • Annandale, N. 1906. A new gecko from the eastern Himalayas. J. Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 2: 287—288 - get paper here
  • Athreya, R. 2006. Eaglenest Biodiversity Project (2003 – 2006): Conservation resources for Eaglenest wildlife sanctuary. Kaati Trust, Pune, 196 pp. - get paper here
  • Bauer, A.M. 2003. Descriptions of seven new Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) with a key to the species of Myanmar (Burma). Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 54: 463-498 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Das, Abhijit 2016. Addition to the Herpetofauna of Royal Manas National Park, Bhutan, with six new country records. Herpetology Notes 9: 261-278 - get paper here
  • Das, Abhijit; Uttam Saikia, B. H. C. K. Murthy, Santanu Dey and Sushil K. Dutta 2009. A herpetofaunal inventory of Barail Wildlife Sanctuary and adjacent regions, Assam, north-eastern India. Hamadryad 34 (1): 117 – 134 - get paper here
  • Das, Indraneil & Abhijit Das 2017. A Naturalist’s Guide to the Reptiles of India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. John Beaufoy Publishing Ltd., Oxford, 176 pp.
  • Das,I. & Palden,J. 2000. A herpetological collection from Bhutan, with new country records. Herpetological Review 31 (4): 256-258 - get paper here
  • Islam, Mazedul & Prasanta Kumar Saikia 2013. Inventory and Natural History of Lizards in Jeypore Rerserve Forest, Assam. Reptile Rap (15): 16-26 - get paper here
  • Jerdon, T.C. 1870. Notes on Indian Herpetology. Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal March 1870: 66-85 - get paper here
  • Krysko, K. L.; Rehman, H. & Auffenberg, K. 2007. A new species of Cyrtopodion (Gekkonidae: Gekkoninae) from Pakistan. Herpetologica 63 (1): 100-113 - get paper here
  • Lalremsanga, H.T., L. Khawlhring & Lalrotluanga 2010. Three additional lizard (Squamata: Sauria) records for Mizoram, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(2): 718-720 - get paper here
  • Mahony, S., M. Ahmed, M. K. Hossain, M. M. Kabir & M. K. Hasan 2009. Cyrtodactylus ayeyarwadyensis Bauer, 2003 (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) in Bangladesh with habitat details of new collection localities and a discussion of morphological variation. Salamandra 45 (4): 245–260 - get paper here
  • Mahony, Stephen 2009. Taxonomic status of Cyrtodactylus khasiensis tamaiensis (Smith, 1940) and description of a new species allied to C. chrysopylos Bauer, 2003 from Myanmar (Reptilia: Gekkonidae). Hamadryad 34 (1): 62 – 74 - get paper here
  • Purkayastha J. 2013. An Amateur’s Guide to Reptiles of Assam. EBH Publishers (India) - get paper here
  • Rösler, H. 2000. Kommentierte Liste der rezent, subrezent und fossil bekannten Geckotaxa (Reptilia: Gekkonomorpha). Gekkota 2: 28-153
  • Rösler, H. & Glaw, F. 2008. A new species of Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Malaysia including a literature survey of mensural and meristic data in the genus. Zootaxa 1729: 8–22 - get paper here
  • Rösler, Herbert 1995. Bemerkungen über eine vorläufig unbezeichnete Cyrtopodion-Art aus Ost-Turkestan (China, Provinz Xinjiang). Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 71: 151-154 - get paper here
  • Shi, Lei & Zhao, Hui 2010. A new species of Cyrtodactylus (Reptilia: Squamata: Geckkonidae) from Xizang Autonomous Region, China. Zootaxa 2336: 51–60 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1940. The Amphibians and Reptiles obtained by Mr. Ronald Kaulback in Upper Burma. Records of the Indian Museum 42: 465-486
  • Sumontha, M., Panitvong, N. & Deein, G. 2010. Cyrtodactylus auribalteatus (Squamata: Gekkonidae), a new cave- dwelling gecko from Phitsanulok Province, Thailand. Zootaxa 2370: 53–64 - get paper here
  • Venugopal, P.D. 2010. An updated and annotated list of Indian lizards (Reptilia: Sauria) based on a review of distribution records and checklists of Indian reptiles. Journal of Threatened Taxa 2 (3): 725-738. - get paper here
  • Wangyal, Jigme Tshelthrim 2019. The status of herpetofauna of Bhutan. District Forest Office, District Administration, Trashigang, Bhutan, 20-39 - get paper here
  • Zhao Ermi; Li Shengquan 1987. A new lizard of Tenuidactylus and a new Tibetan snake record of Amphiesma. Acta Herpetologica Sinica 6 (1): 48-51 - get paper here
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