Cyrtodactylus macrotuberculatus GRISMER & AHMAD, 2008
Can you confirm these amateur observations of Cyrtodactylus macrotuberculatus?
|Higher Taxa||Gekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)|
|Common Names||E: Tuberculate Bent-toed Gecko, Large Tubercled Bent-toed Gecko|
Thai: Took-kai Phuket [phuketensis]
E: Phuket bent-toed gecko [phuketensis]
F: Cyrtodactyle de Phuket [phuketensis]
Dutch: Phuketkromvingergekko [phuketensis]
|Synonym||Cyrtodactylus macrotuberculatus GRISMER & AHMAD 2008|
Cyrtodactylus macrotuberculatus — GRISMER 2011
Cyrtodactylus phuketensis SUMONTHA, PAUWELS, KUNYA, NITIKUL, SAMPHANTHAMIT & GRISMER 2012
Cyrtodactylus macrotuberculatus — GRISMER & QUAH 2019
|Distribution||W Malaysia (Pulau Langkawi, Kedah)|
Type locality: beneath an overpass on the road to Gunung Raya (06°23.023 N, 99°49.126 E; 621 m elevation), Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia.
phuketensis: Thailand (Phuket Island); Type locality: Ban Bangrong (coordinates UTM UPS ca. 47 p0433130 0888891 = 08°02.465N, 98°23.588E; elevation ca. 41 m), Thalang District, Phuket Island, Phuket Province, southwestern Thailand
|Types||Holotype: ZRC 2.6754, adult male, collected by L. Lee Grismer, Perry L. Wood, Jr., Timothy A. Youmans, and Norsham Yaakob on 8 August 2005. Paratypes: ZRC|
Holotype: PSUZC RT 2010.58, adult male (formerly Montri Sumontha field number MS 510). Collected by Kirati Kunya on 2 June 2008. Paratypes. Adult male THNHM 15378 (formerly MS 509) and adult female QSMI 1170 (formerly MS 508). Locality, collecting date, and collector are the same as the holotype [phuketensis]
|Diagnosis||Diagnosis. Cyrtodactylus macrotuberculatus is distinguished from all other Sunda Shelf species by having a maximum SVL of 120 mm; very large, trihedral, keeled, tubercles on body, limbs, and tail; tubercles present on occiput and top of head; no granular scales (only large tubercles) on dorsal surfaces of limbs; 19–22 ventral scales; transversely enlarged, median, subcaudal scales; proximal subdigital lamellae square; 21–23 subdigital lamellae on fourth toe; abrupt transition between posterior and ventral femoral scales; enlarged femoral and precloacal scales with a continuous series of 35–37 pore-bearing scales (femoero-precloacal scales); precloacal groove present, precloacal depression absent; no white recticulum on head; body and tail banded, limbs immaculate. The majority of these characters are summarized across all Sunda Shelf species in Table 1 in GRISMER & AHMAD 2008.|
Diagnosis. Adult males reaching 118.6 mm SVL, adult females reaching 113.4 mm SVL; 9–12 supralabials, 7–11 infralabials; tubercles of dorsum very large with no intervening smaller tubercles; tubercles on ventral surfaces of forelimbs, in gular region, and in ventrolateral body fold; 31–44 paravertebral tubercles; 19–27 longitudinal rows of dorsal tubercles; 17–28 rows of ventral scales; 20–24 subdigital lamellae on fourth toe; 28–40 femoro-precloacal pores in males; dorsum not bearing a scattered pattern of white tubercles; four body bands in adults lacking lightened centers and light colored tubercles; band to interspace ratio 1.00–1.50; 7–10 dark, caudal bands on original tail; white caudal bands in adults infused with dark pigment; and posterior portion of tail in hatchlings and juveniles banded not white. These characters are scored across all species of the Cyrtodactylus pulchellus complex in Table 6 [from GRISMER et al. 2012].
Revised diagnosis. Cyrtodactylus macrotuberculatus can be separated from all other species of C. pulchellus complex by having the following combination of characters (Table 6): (1) maximum SVL 117.9 mm (mean 105.0 ± SD 9.8, N = 39); (2) 9–13 supralabial and 7–11 infralabial scales; (3) prominent tuberculation on body; (4) tubercles on ventral surface of forelimbs, gular region, in ventrolateral body folds, and anterior one-third of tail; (5) 34–49 paravertebral tubercles; (6) 19–27 longitudinal tubercle rows; (7) 17–28 ventral scales; (8) 19–23 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; (9) 28–42 femoroprecloacal pores in males; (10) deep precloacal groove in males; (11) three or four dark dorsal body bands; (12) body band wider than interspace; (13) 7–10 (N = 12) ringed dark caudal bands on original tail; (14) white caudal bands infused with dark pigmentation in adults; (15) posterior portion of tail in hatchlings and juveniles bands not white (Termprayoon et al. 2021).
Comparison. Cyrtodactylus macrotuberculatus is distinguished from all other 15 species in the C. pulchellus complex by a combination of morphological characters (Table 7). It differs from all other species by having prominent tuberculation on the body; tubercles on ventral surface of forelimbs, gular region, and in ventrolateral body folds; 34–49 paravertebral tubercles; 19–27 longitudinal tubercle rows; 17–28 ventral scales; 19–23 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; 28–42 femorprecloacal pores in males; deep precloacal groove in males; no scattered white spots on dorsum; 7–10 dark-ringed caudal bands on original tail; white caudal bands on original tail infused with dark pigmentation in adults. Additional comparisons between C. macrotuberculatus and other species in C. pulchellus complex are in Table 7 (in Termprayoon et al. 2021).
Based on molecular data, C. macrotuberculatus is the sister lineage to a clade composed of C. pulchellus and C. evanquahi. It can be separated from those two species by having tubercles on ventral surface of forelimbs, gular region, and in ventrolateral body folds (vs. absent in C. evanquahi and C. pulchellus); 17–28 ventral scales (vs. 29–33 in C. evanquahi and 29–34 in C. pulchellus); deep precloacal groove in males (vs. a shallow in C. evanquahi); three or four dark dorsal bands (vs. six or seven bands in C. evanquahi and only four bands in C. pulchellus); white posterior caudal region absent (vs. present in C. evanquahi); hatchlings and juveniles without white tail tip (vs. present in C. evanquahi)(Termprayoon et al. 2021).
Diagnosis (phuketensis). Cyrtodactylus phuketensis is distinguished from all other Sunda Shelf Cyrtodactylus by having the unique combination of a maximum SVL of 114.7 mm; very large, trihedral, keeled, tubercles on body, limbs and tail; tubercles present on occiput and top of head and on gular region and throat; no granular scales (only large tubercles) on dorsal surfaces of limbs; 22–24 ventral scale rows; transversely enlarged, median, subcaudal plates; proximal subdigital lamellae square; 19 subdigital lamellae on 4th toe; abrupt transition between posterior and ventral femoral scales; enlarged femoral and precloacal scales in a continuous series bearing 33–36 pores; precloacal groove present in males and females; precloacal depression absent; no white reticulum on head; three dark bands between limbs insertions; no bands on fore- and hind limbs (Sumontha et al. 2012).
|Comment||NCBI taxonomy ID: 2870636 [phuketensis]|
Synonymy: Termprayoon et al. 2021 synonymized C. phuketensis with C. macrotuberculatus.
|Etymology||The specific epithet phuketensis refers to Phuket Island, on which the type locality is situated.|
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