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Cyrtodactylus maelanoi GRISMER, RUJIRAWAN, TERMPRAYOON, AMPAI,<br /> YODTHONG, WOOD, OAKS & AOWPHOL, 2020

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Mae La Noi Bent-toed Gecko 
SynonymCyrtodactylus maelanoi GRISMER, RUJIRAWAN, TERMPRAYOON, AMPAI,
YODTHONG, WOOD, OAKS & AOWPHOL 2020 
DistributionThailand (Mae Hong Son Province)

Type locality: Tha Pha Pum Subdis- trict, Mae La Noi District, Mae Hong Son Province, Thailand (18.34223°N, 98.02317°E WGS; 991 m in elevation).  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype. ZMKU R 00857, Adult male (field tag AA 03726) collected on 22 March 2017 at 2100 hrs by Piyawan Puanprapai, Attapol Rujirawan, Siriporn Yodthong, Natee Ampai, and Elyse S. Freitas.
Paratypes. The paratypes ZMKU R 00852–00856 (field tag AA 03721–25) bear the same data as the holotype. The remaining paratypes ZMKU R 00858–00860 (field tag AA 06195–97) bear the same locality data as the holo- type but were collected by Attapol Rujirawan, Siriporn Yodthong, Korkwan Termprayoon, Natee Ampai on 13 June 2018. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Cyrtodactylus maelanoi sp. nov. differs from all species in the C. sinyineensis group by having the combination of 7–9 supralabials; six or seven infralabials; 29–37 paravertebral tubercles; 16–19 longitudinal rows of dorsal tubercles; 27–33 ventral scales ventral scales; 9–12 expanded subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; 11–14 unmodified subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; 22–24 total subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; 24–28 enlarged femoral scales; a total of 8–13 pore-bearing femoral scales in males; 4–8 enlarged precloacal scales; four or five pore-bearing precloacal scales in males; three rows of enlarged post-precloacal scales; approximately five or six jagged dorsal body bands; 11 light-colored caudal bands (n=2); 11 dark-colored caudal bands (n=2); raised and strongly keeled dorsal tubercles that extend beyond base of tail; enlarged femoral and precloacal scales nearly the same size and continuous; pore-bearing femoral and precloacal scales not continuous; medial subcaudals two to three times wider than long and not extending onto lateral side of tail; iris reddish; nuchal loop lacking an anterior azygous notch, and bearing a jagged posterior border; dorsal bands not bearing paravertebral elements, wider than interspaces, bearing lightened centers, edged with white tubercles; dark markings in dorsal interspaces; dark caudal bands wider than light caudal bands; light caudal bands in adults bearing dark-colored markings; light-colored cau- dal bands not encircling tail; and mature regenerated tail not spotted (Table 5 in Grismer et al. 2020).

Color pattern (Figs. 5, 6). Dorsal ground color of head, body, limbs, and tail yellowish-brown; top of head and rostrum nearly unicolor, bearing areas of slightly darker, diffuse irregularly shaped markings; nuchal loop smooth posteriorly with two posterior projections, not divided medially; approximately five dark jagged body bands bear- ing lightened centers, lacking paravertebral elements, edged with whitish tubercles extend from the shoulder to the presacral region; lighter colored interspaces between bands bear darker markings; whitish tubercles scattered on flanks; sacral and postsacral bands continue onto the tail to form five black caudal bands that are wider than the five light-colored caudal bands; light-colored caudal bands bear dark markings and do not encircle tail; limbs bear distinct, dark-colored irregularly shaped markings; posterior one-third of tail regenerated with dark mottled pattern; gular scales bearing only two or three black stipples; black stippling in throat, pectoral region, and anterior portion of belly more dense; subcaudal region darkly mottled, posterior one-third grey with faint mottling (Grismer et al. 2020).

Variation. The paratypes closely resemble the holotype in dorsal banding and nuchal loop pattern (Fig. 6). The nape band are more prominent in ZMKU R 00858–00860 and ZMKU R 00855. Paratypes ZMKU R 00858–00860, 00852, 00855–00857 are darker overall. Paratypes ZMKU R 00853, 00859–00860 have regenerated tails. Paratype ZMKU R 00854 is missing the posterior one-thrid to one-half of the tail. Additional variation in meristic and men- sural characters are presented in Table 6 in Grismer et al. 2020.

Comparisons. Cyrtodactylus maelanoi sp. nov. (n=9) differs from all other species of the C. sinyineensis based on various combinations of character states (Table 5). In clade 1, it differs from C. inthanon, C. sinyineensis, and C. taungwineensis in having significantly fewer supralabials and from these species plus C. welpyanensis in hav- ing significantly fewer infralabials (Fig. 4; Table 4). It differs further from C. sinyineensis, C. taungwineensis, and C. welpyanensis having significantly fewer precloacal scales; from C. sinyineensis it differs significantly in having fewer enlarged femoral scales; it differs further from C. taungwineensis by having significantly fewer ventral scales (Fig. 4; Table 4). Cyrtodactylus maelanoi sp. nov. may differ further from its sister species C. inthanon in having 24–28 enlarged femoral scales versus 29–32 in C. inthanon and they plot completely separate in the PCA and DAPC analyses (Fig. 3). Increases in sample sizes may indicate that some of these character differences are not statistically significant whereas other differences may be statistically significant. Differences in color pattern among all species of the C. sinyineensis group are listed in Table 5 in Grismer et al. 2020. 
Comment 
EtymologyThe specific epithet “maelanoi” is a toponym of the type locality Mae La Noi. 
References
  • Grismer, L. L., Wood, P. L., Poyarkov, N. A., Le, M. D., Kraus, F., Agarwal, I., ... & Grismer, J. L. 2021. Phylogenetic partitioning of the third-largest vertebrate genus in the world, Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Reptilia; Squamata; Gekkonidae) and its relevance to taxonomy and conservation. Vertebrate Zoology 71: 101–154 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; ATTAPOL RUJIRAWAN, KORKHWAN TERMPRAYOON, NATEE AMPAI,<br />SIRIPORN YODTHONG, PERRY L. WOOD, JR, JAMIE R. OAKS & ANCHALEE AOWPHOL 2020. A new species of Cyrtodactylus Gray (Squamata; Gekkonidae) from the Thai Highlands with a discussion on the evolution of habitat preference. Zootaxa 4852 (4): 401–427 - get paper here
 
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