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Cyrtodactylus pharbaungensis GRISMER, WOOD, THURA, ZIN, QUAH, MURDOCH, GRISMER, LIN, KYAW & LWIN, 2017

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Pharbaung cave bent-toed gecko 
SynonymCyrtodactylus pharbaungensis GRISMER, WOOD, THURA, ZIN, QUAH, MURDOCH, GRISMER, LIN, KYAW & LWIN 2017: 52 
DistributionMyanmar (Mawlamyine District, Mon State)

Type locality: Pharbaung Cave 38.4 km south-east of Mawlamyine, Mawlamyine District, Mon State, Myanmar (N16°17.118, E97°54.056; 47 m in elevation).  
TypesHolotype: LSUHC 12871, Adult male collected on 7 October 2016 between 1600 and 1500 h by L. Lee Grismer, Marta S. Grismer, Myint Kyaw Thura, Evan S. H. Quah, Perry L. Wood, Jr., Matthew L. Murdoch, Thaw Zin and Htet Kyaw. Paratypes: Adult males BYU 52215, LSUHC 12870 and 12873 bear the same collection data as the holotype. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Cyrtodactylus pharbaungensis sp. nov. differs from all congeners by having the unique combination of nine supralabials; seven infralabials; 12–14 longitudinal rows of body tubercles; 28–30 paravertebral tubercles; 34–38 ventral scales; relatively long digits with 7–9 expanded subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe proximal to the digital inflection, 12–14 unmodified distal subdigital lamellae, 21 total subdigital lamellae; body tuberculation variable; body tubercles not extending beyond base of tail; enlarged femoral and precloacal scales continuous; 28–34 enlarged femoral scales; enlarged femoral scales generally equal in size; 14–20 femoral pores in males; 9–11 enlarged precloacal scales; 5–8 precloacal pores in males; two rows of enlarged post-precloacal scales; subcaudal scales three times as wide as long, extending onto lateral surface of tail; top of head bearing a dark mottled pattern, no yellow reticulum; nuchal loop divided medially, lacking an anterior, azygous notch, posterior border straight; five or six dark, regularly shaped, dorsal bands narrower than interspaces with lightened centres, not edged with white tubercles; first dorsal band lacking azygous notch; dark markings in dorsal interspaces; ventrolateral folds whitish; anterodorsal margin of thighs and brachia lacking pigment; 6–8 light caudal bands bearing dark markings and not encircling tail; and 7–9 dark caudal bands of varying width relative to light caudal bands.

Comparisons: Cyrtodactylus pharbaungensis sp. nov. is part of the sadansinensis group. The PCA and DAPC analyses indicate that the species of this group are completely separate in morphospace where the first two principal components account for 59% of the total variation (Fig. 12) and load most heavily for longitudinal rows of dorsal body tubercles, enlarged precloacal scales, and number of unmodified and total number of fourth toe lamellae (Table S2). Cyrtodactylus pharbaungensis sp. nov. is well-differentiated from C. sadansinensis sp. nov. by having statistically significant differences in its mean number of paravertebral tubercles, longitudinal rows of dorsal body tubercles, enlarged femoral scales, enlarged precloacal scales, unmodified subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe, post-precloacal scales rows and precloacal pores and by having continuous, femoral and precloacal scales (Table 8). It less well-separated from its sister species C. sanpelensis sp. nov. by only showing statistically significant differences in its mean number of enlarged femoral scales and femoral pores. However, the enlarged femoral and precloacal scales in C. pharbaungesis sp. nov. are continuous and are discontinuous in C. sanpelensis sp. nov.; and in C. pharbaungesis sp. nov. the dorsal bands are not wider than the interspaces, whereas they are in C. sanpelensis sp. nov. (Table 8). Varying combinations of other differences between C. sadansisnensis sp. nov. and C. sanpelensis sp. nov. as well as the other newly described species are presented in Table 7. Genetic distances among the species of this group range from 8.7 to 13.1% (Table 10). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet, pharbaungensis (pronounced far-bong-ensis), is a noun in apposition in reference to the type locality of Pharbaung Cave. 
  • Grismer, L. L., Wood, P. L., Poyarkov, N. A., Le, M. D., Kraus, F., Agarwal, I., ... & Grismer, J. L. 2021. Phylogenetic partitioning of the third-largest vertebrate genus in the world, Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Reptilia; Squamata; Gekkonidae) and its relevance to taxonomy and conservation. Vertebrate Zoology 71: 101–154 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; PERRY L. WOOD, JR., MYINT KYAW THURA, THAW ZIN, EVAN S. H. QUAH, MATTHEW L. MURDOCH, MARTA S. GRISMER, AUNG LIN, HTET KYAW and NGWE LWIN 2017. Twelve new species of Cyrtodactylus Gray (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from isolated limestone habitats in east- central and southern Myanmar demonstrate high localized diversity and unprecedented microendemism. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 182: 862-959 - get paper here
  • Keating, S. E., Blumer, M., Grismer, L. L., Lin, A., Nielsen, S. V., Thura, M. K., ... & Gamble, T. 2021. Sex Chromosome Turnover in Bent-Toed Geckos (Cyrtodactylus). Genes, 12(1), 116 - get paper here
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