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Cyrtodactylus sadanensis GRISMER, WOOD, THURA, ZIN, QUAH, MURDOCH, GRISMER, LIN, KYAW & LWIN, 2017

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Sadan cave bent-toed gecko 
SynonymCyrtodactylus sadanensis GRISMER, WOOD, THURA, ZIN, QUAH, MURDOCH, GRISMER, LIN, KYAW & LWIN 2017: 83 
DistributionMyanmar (Hpa-an District, Kayin State)

Type locality: Sadan Cave 17 km south-east of Hpa-an, Hpa-an District, Kayin State, Myanmar (N16°44.605, E97°29.493; 26 m in elevation).  
TypesHolotype: LSUHC 12839, Adult male, collected on 5 October 2016 at 1700 h by L. Lee Grismer, Evan S. H. Quah, Perry L. Wood, Jr., Myint Kyaw Thura, Thaw Zin, Matthew L. Murdoch, Marta S. Grismer and Htet Kyaw. Paratypes: Adult males BYU 52218 and LSUHC 12848, adult females BYU 52216–17, 52219, LSUHC 12841–47, 12849 and 12853 bear the same collection data as the holotype. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Cyrtodactylussadanensissp.nov.differsfrom all congeners by having the unique combination of ten or 11 supralabials; 7–9 infralabials; 13–15 longitudinal rows of body tubercles; 30–33 paravertebral tubercles; 30–35 ventral scales; relatively long digits with 7–9 expanded, subdigital lamellae on fourth toe proximal to digital inflection, 13 or 14 unmodified, distal, subdigital lamellae and 21–23 total subdigital lamellae; raised, moderately to strongly keeled, dorsal body tubercles extending beyond base of tail; enlarged femoral and precloacal scales not continuous; 34–41 enlarged femoral scales; 12 or 13 femoral pores in males; 10–13 enlarged precloacal scales; two or three precloacal pores in males; three rows of enlarged post-precloacal scales; medial subcaudal scales three times as wide as long, extending onto lateral surface of tail; top of head bearing diffuse, dark mottling, lacking yellow reticulum; nuchal loop not divided medially, lacking an anterior azygous notch; five rarely six dark, weakly jagged, dorsal bands generally lacking paravertebral elements, same width or narrower than interspaces, faintly lightened centres, edged with yellowish tubercles; dark markings in dorsal interspaces; ventrolateral folds whitish; anterodorsal margins of thighs generally lack pigment; 16 light caudal bands bearing dark markings, not encircling tail; 17 dark caudal bands same width or wider than light caudal bands; and mature, regenerated tail not spotted.

Comparisons: Cyrtodactylus sadanensis sp. nov. is part of the yathepyanensis group. The PCA and DAPC analyses indicate that the species of this group are completely separate in morphospace and that the first two principal components account for 55% of the total variation (Fig. 12; Fig. S5) and load most heavily for numbers of paravertebral tubercles and ventral scales (Table 8). See Comparisons for C. yathepyanensis sp. nov. and C. linnoensis sp. nov. for additional differences among them. Morphological differences from other species in the Indo-Chinese clade are listed in Table 8. 
CommentSympatry: The fact that Cyrtodactylus sadanensis sp. nov. is sympatric but not syntopic with C. sinyineensis from Sin Yine Cave is an indication of the degree of niche partitioning that may occur in many of the karst habitats we explored. The hillside walls outside Sadan Cave are continuous with those of Sin Yine Cave and would enable these two species to share the same microhabitat. Yet the larger C. sinyineensis sp. nov. (maximum SVL = 91.6 mm) was only found inside the cave at least 100 m from the opening and the smaller C. sadanensis sp. nov. (maximum SVL = 73.8 mm) was abundant on the karst walls outside the cave. Additionally, these two species do not occur in the same species group, indicating that this karst system has been invaded multiple times. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet, sadanensis, is a noun in apposition in reference to the type locality of Sadan Cave. 
  • Grismer, L. L., Wood, P. L., Poyarkov, N. A., Le, M. D., Kraus, F., Agarwal, I., ... & Grismer, J. L. 2021. Phylogenetic partitioning of the third-largest vertebrate genus in the world, Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Reptilia; Squamata; Gekkonidae) and its relevance to taxonomy and conservation. Vertebrate Zoology 71: 101–154 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; PERRY L. WOOD, JR., MYINT KYAW THURA, THAW ZIN, EVAN S. H. QUAH, MATTHEW L. MURDOCH, MARTA S. GRISMER, AUNG LIN, HTET KYAW and NGWE LWIN 2017. Twelve new species of Cyrtodactylus Gray (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from isolated limestone habitats in east- central and southern Myanmar demonstrate high localized diversity and unprecedented microendemism. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 182: 862-959 - get paper here
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