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Cyrtodactylus sinyineensis GRISMER, WOOD, THURA, ZIN, QUAH, MURDOCH, GRISMER, LIN, KYAW & LWIN, 2017

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Sin yine cave bent-toed gecko 
SynonymCyrtodactylus sinyineensis GRISMER, WOOD, THURA, ZIN, QUAH, MURDOCH, GRISMER, LIN, KYAW & LWIN 2017: 64 
DistributionMyanmar (Kayin State)

Type locality: Sin Yine Cave 18.5 km south-east of Hpa-an, Hpa-an District, Kayin State, Myanmar (N16°44.605, E97°29.493; 26 m in elevation).  
TypesHolotype: LSUHC 12835, Adult male, collected on 5 October 2016 at 1600 h by L. Lee Grismer, Perry L. Wood, Jr., Matthew L. Murdoch, Myint Kyaw Thura, Evan S. H. Quah, Thaw Zin, Htet Kyaw and Marta S. Grismer. Paratypes: Adult females LSUHC 12836–37 bear the same collection data as the holotype. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Cyrtodactylus sinyineensis sp. nov. differs from all congeners by having the unique combination of nine or ten supralabials; eight infralabials; 15 longitudinal rows of body tubercles; 33–35 paravertebral tubercles; 27–29 ventral scales; relatively long digits with 8–10 expanded subdigital lamellae proximal to the digital inflection on the fourth toe, 11 or 12 unmodified, distal, subdigital lamellae; 19–21 total subdigital lamellae; raised, moderate to strongly keeled, dorsal body tubercles extending beyond base of tail; enlarged femoral and precloacal scales continuous; 26 or 27 enlarged femoral scales nearly equal in size; 18 femoral pores in males; 10–12 enlarged precloacal scales; five precloacal pores in males; three rows of enlarged, post-precloacal scales; median subcaudal scales twice as wide as long, not extending onto lateral surface of tail; top of head bearing diffuse dark mottling, no yellow reticulum; nuchal loop not divided medially, lacking an anterior, azygous notch, posterior border jagged; five or six dark, jagged dorsal bands wider than interspaces bearing weakly lightened centres, edged with yellow tubercles; nape band present; dark markings in dorsal interspaces variable; ventrolateral folds not whitish; anterodorsal margins of thighs and brachia darkly pigmented; nine light-coloured, caudal bands bearing dark markings, not encircling tail; and nine dark caudal bands wider than light caudal bands.

Comparisons: Cyrtodactylus sinyineensis sp. nov. is part of the sinyineensis group. The PCA and DAPC analyses indicate that the species of this group are completely separate in morphospace where the first two principal components account for 63% of the total variation (Fig. 12) and load most heavily for numbers of infralabials, longitudinal rows of body tubercles, expanded subdigital fourth toe lamellae and post-precloacal scale rows (Table S3). Cyrtodactylus sinyineensis sp. nov. is well- differentiated from C. aequalis, C. dammanthaensis sp. nov. and C. welpyanensis sp. nov. by having varying combinations of statistically different mean values of infralabials, supralabials, ventral scales, enlarged femoral scales, precloacal scales; and longitudinal rows of body tubercles (Table 3). It differs further from its sister species, C. welpyanensis sp. nov., by having dorsal bands edged with light tubercles and having a maximum SVL of 91.6 mm vs. 70.6 mm. It differs further from C. dammathetensis, and C. aequalis by lacking paravertebral elements in the dorsal banding pattern (Table 8). Morphological and colour pattern differences from other species in the Indo-Chinese clade are listed in Table 8. Genetic distances among the species of this group range from 11.0 to 16.5% (Table 10). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet, sinyineensis, is a noun in apposition in reference to the type locality of Sin Yine Cave. 
  • CHOMDEJ, S., SUWANNAPOOM, C., PAWANGKHANANT, P., PRADIT, W., NAZAROV, R. A., GRISMER, L. L., & POYARKOV, N. A. 2020. A new species Cyrtodactytlus Gray (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from western Thailand and the phylogenetic placement of C. inthanon and C. doisuthep. Zootaxa 4838 (2): 179-209 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Perry L. Wood Jr., Myint Kyaw Thura, Evan S.H. Quah, Matthew L. Murdoch, Marta S. Grismer, Mark W. Herr, Aung Lin & Htet Kyaw 2018. Three more new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Salween Basin of eastern Myanmar underscore the urgent need for the conservation of karst habitats. Journal of Natural History, 52:19-20, 1243-1294 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; PERRY L. WOOD, JR., EVAN S.H. QUAH, MARTA S. GRISMER, MYINT KYAW<br />THURA, JAMIE R. OAKS & AUNG LIN 2020. Two new species of Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from a karstic archipelago in the Salween Basin of southern Myanmar (Burma). Zootaxa 4718 (2): 151–183 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; PERRY L. WOOD, JR., MYINT KYAW THURA, THAW ZIN, EVAN S. H. QUAH, MATTHEW L. MURDOCH, MARTA S. GRISMER, AUNG LIN, HTET KYAW and NGWE LWIN 2017. Twelve new species of Cyrtodactylus Gray (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from isolated limestone habitats in east- central and southern Myanmar demonstrate high localized diversity and unprecedented microendemism. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 182: 862-959 - get paper here
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