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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Tambora Bent-toed Gecko
Indonesian: Cicak Jari-Lengkung Tambora 
DistributionIndonesia (Nusa Tenggara Barat Province, Sumbawa Island)

Type locality: Oi Marai River, desa (village) Kawinda Toi, kecamatan (subdistrict) Tambora, kabupaten (district) Bima, Nusa Tenggara Barat Province, Sumbawa Island, Indonesia (8.1145°S, 118.0073°E; elev. 134 m  
TypesHolotype: MZB Lace.13298 (field number AM 042), an adult male (Fig. 1A), collected on 20 April 2015 by A. Riyanto and Mulyadi. Paratypes. MZB.Lace.13296 (field number AM 019), a subadult male (Fig. 1B) from near the type locality (8.0986°S, 118.0072°E; elev. 21 m), collected on 20 April 2015 by A. Riyanto and Mulyadi; MZB.Lace.13297 (field number AM 037), an adult female (Fig. 1C) from near the type locality (8.1187°S, 118.0079°E; elev. 155 m), collected on 19 April 2015 by A. Riyanto and Mulyadi; MZB.Lace.13909 (field number SKT-R007), an adult female from the same locality as the holotype collected on 21 June 2015 by Irfan Haidar Basyir and the Himakova Team. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Cyrtodactylus tambora sp. nov. can be distinguished from Greater Sunda Islands (including Sulawesi) and Lesser Sunda Islands species of Cyrtodactylus by the following combination of characters: (1) two scales between the second pair of postmentals in contact with the first pair; (2) dorsal surface of antebrachium tuberculate; (3) no tubercles on dorsal surface of brachium; (4) dorsal surfaces of thigh and crus tuberculate; (5) 18 irregularly aligned, longitudinal rows of keeled tubercles at midbody; (6) 26–27 paravertebral tubercles; (7) 40 ventral scales between indistinct ventrolateral folds; (8) 16–17 fourth-toe subdigital scales; (9) a continuous enlarged precloacal and femoral scales present, with the enlarged femoral scales arranged in three rows; (10) males with five to six precloacal pores, with four larger pores situated in a short groove; (11) femoral pores absent in both sexes; (12) lack of transversely enlarged subcaudal scales; and (13) 7–9 irregular, paired black blotches on the body.

Species comparisons. Cyrtodactylus tambora can be readily distinguished from Lesser Sunda congeners with the exception of the superficially similar C. celatus and C. laevigatus. It is distinguished from C. celatus (characteristics in parentheses) by having 5 or 6 precloacal pores in males (four pores; data from Rösler & Kaiser 2016), enlarged femoral scales (absent; data from Kathriner et al. 2014; Rösler & Kaiser 2016; Mecke et al. 2016). The new species can be distinguished from C. laevigatus (characteristics in parentheses; data from Kathriner et al. 2014; Mecke et al. 2016) by having 40 ventral scales (30–34 ventral scales), a precloacal groove in males (absent), 5–6 precloacal pores in males (absent), and 16–17 (10–15) LamT4.
Cyrtodactylus tambora can be distinguished from other Lesser Sunda Cyrtodactylus as follows (characteristics of other Lesser Sunda species in parentheses): from C. darmandvillei (data from Mecke et al.2016; HK, pers. obs.) by its smaller SVL in adults (80–82 mm), absence of tubercles along the ventrolateral fold (present), presence of a precloacal groove in males (absent), 16–17 (23–24) LamT4, and absence of enlarged median subcaudals (present); from C. gordongekkoi (data from Das 1993; Biswas 2007; Mecke et al. 2016) by smaller SVL in adults (71–73 mm), 40 ventral scales (30–32 scales), presence of precloacal groove in males (absent), presence of precloacal pores in males (absent), and 16–17 (20–22) LamT4; from C. wetariensis (data from Mecke et al. 2016; HK pers. obs.) in having smaller SVL (58–67 mm), a precloacal groove in males (absent), 5–6 precloacal pores in males (11 pores in an angular series), and number of femoral pores (12–16 pores on each side in males). A comparison of selected mensural and meristic characters used to distinguish the new species from congeneric species in the Lesser Sundas is presented in Table 2 and the arrangement of scales of the mental region among Lesser Sunda species is presented in Figure 2.
We also compared Cyrtodactylus tambora to other congeners from the Greater Sunda Islands (including Sulawesi), and Eastern Indonesia. All characters listed in this comparison apply to both male and female individuals unless otherwise noted. Unlike the new species, males (and females) of C. baluensis, C. batik, C. consobrinus, C. deveti, C. hitchi, C. ingeri, C. jellesmae, C. majulah , C. matsuii , C. petani, C. psarops, C. rosichonariefi, C. semiadii , C. spinosus , C. quadrivirgatus , C. wallacei and C. zugi , do not possess a precloacal groove. Enlarged precloacofemoral scales are present in Cyrtodactylus tambora, whereas C. baluensis, C. batik, C. boreoclivus , C. cavernicolus, C. consobrinus, C. elok , C. hitchi, C. ingeri , C. jarakensis, C. jellesmae, C. leegrismeri , C. majulah, C. matsuii, C. pantiensis , C. peguensis, C. pubisulcus , C. quadrivirgatus, C. rosichonariefi, C. semenanjungensis , C. semiadii, C. sermowaiensis, C. stresemanni , and C. yoshii , lack such a series. Unlike C. aurensis, C. baluensis, C. batik, C. boreoclivus, C. brevipalmatus, C. consobrinus, C. fumosus, C. hikidai , C. hitchi, C. ingeri, C. leegrismeri, C. macrotuberculatus , C. malayanus (), C. peguensis, C. pulchellus , C. rex, and C. wallacei, the new species lacks enlarged median subcaudal scales. 
CommentAbundance: only known from its original description (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyThe species name tambora is a noun used in apposition. It is used not only to identify the collection locality, but also to commemorate the large eruption of Gunung Tambora in 1815, which no doubt significantly realigned the local natural world on its slopes. 
  • KATHRINER, ANDREW; AARON M. BAUER, MARK O’SHEA, CAITLIN SANCHEZ, HINRICH KAISER 2014. Hiding in plain sight: a new species of bent-toed gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus) from West Timor, collected by Malcolm Smith in 1924. Zootaxa 3900 (4): 555–568 - get paper here
  • MECKE, SVEN; MAX KIECKBUSCH, LUKAS HARTMANN, HINRICH KAISER 2016. Historical considerations and comments on the type series of Cyrtodactylus marmoratus Gray, 1831, with an updated comparative table for the bent-toed geckos of the Sunda Islands and Sulawesi. Zootaxa 4175 (4): 353–365 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • RIYANTO, AWAL; MULYADI MULYADI, JIMMY A. MCGUIRE, MIRZA D. KUSRINI, FEBYLASMIA FEBYLASMIA, IRFAN HAIDAR BASYIR, HINRICH KAISER 2017. A new small bent-toed gecko of the genus Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the lower slopes of Mount Tambora, Sumbawa Island, Indonesia. Zootaxa 4242 (3): 517-528 - get paper here
  • Rösler, Herbert & Hinrich Kaiser 2016. Male secondary sexual characteristics of the gecko Cyrtodactylus celatus Kathriner et al., 2014 from Timor Island (Squamata, Gekkonidae). Spixiana 39 (1): 125-129 - get paper here
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