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Dendragama australis HARVEY, SHANEY, SIDIK, KURNIAWAN & SMITH, 2017

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Draconinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymDendragama australis HARVEY, SHANEY, SIDIK, KURNIAWAN & SMITH 2017 
DistributionIndonesia (Sumatra)

Type locality: trail up Gunung Dempo above Kampung Empat, Kabupaten Pagaralam, Provinsi Sumatera Selatan, Indonesia, 4.037448S, 103.145268E, 1953 m  
Reproductionoviparous; Harvey et al. 2017 concluded that Dendragama australis normally has a clutch size of four and reaches sexual maturity around 60 mm SVL. Presence of eggs in pairs and in up to four developmental stages strongly suggests that female D. australis produce multiple clutches per year. 
TypesHolotype: MZB 13786, field tag ENS 18398, adult male (Fig. 6), collected by M.B. Harvey, P. Thammachoti, and G. Pradana on 10 July 2015. Paratypes (37).—Seven males (MZB 13776, 13778, 13782, 13783; UTA 63420, 63421, 63423), four females (MZB 13777, 13779, 13781, UTA 63424), and four unsexed specimens (MZB 13780, UTA 63418, 63419, 63422) from Gunung Patah near Desa Segamit, Kabupaten Muara Enim, Provinsi Sumatera Selatan, Indonesia, 4.21–4.238S, 103.41– 103.428E, 1742–2142 m, collected on 12 July 2015 by E. Wostl, G. Sarker, G. Pradana, and F. Alhadi. Three males (MZB 13784, UTA 63427, 63428), two females (MZB 13785, 13787), and six unsexed specimens (MZB 13788, UTA 63425, 63426, 63429–63431) from Gunung Dempo above Kampung Empat, Kabupaten Pagaralam, Provinsi Sumatera Selatan, Indonesia, 4.048S, 103.14–103.178E, 1764–2111 m, collected on 8, 10, 14, and 15 July 2015 by M. Harvey, E. Wostl, U. Smart, G. Sarker, P. Thammachoti, G. Pradana and F. Alhadi. Three males (MZB 13789, 13790, UTA 63433) and one unsexed specimen (UTA 63432) from Bukit Daun, above desa Air Nipas, Rimbo Pengadang, Kabupaten Rejang Lebong, Provinsi Bengkulu, Indonesia, 3.368S, 102.388E, 1646–1728 m, collected on 21 July 2015 by E. Wostl, G. Sarker and F. Akhsani. Five males (MZB 13791– 13793; UTA 63434, 63435), one female (UTA 63436), and one unsexed specimen (UTA 63437) from Air Duku, Selupu Rejang, trail up Gunung Kambing from police academy near road to Gunung Kaba, Kabupaten Rejang Lebong, Provinsi Bengkulu, Indonesia, 3.39–3.408S, 102.63–102.648E, 1516– 1748 m, collected on 22 July 2015 by E. Smith, E. Wostl, G. Sarker and G. Pradana. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. The following combination of characters distinguishes Dendragama australis from its congeners: (1) enlarged scales below eye broadly contacting supralabials; (2) enlarged tympanic scale relatively small (6–10% of head length) and set relatively close to eye (orbit–meatus 21–36% of head length); (3) sublabial tubercular scales 3–5, usually 4, in front of postrictal modified scale; (4) gulars large, 15–30; (5) dorsal crest of 19–37 projecting scales, serrate and continuous along back without obvious gaps; (6) dorsolateral crest broken: posttympanic series of enlarged, modified scales straight or curving upward, dorsolateral series curving downward; (7) scales around midbody 61–94; (8) scales of lower flanks heterogenous; (9) ventrals smooth or very feebly keeled, 44–60 from preaxial border of arm to vent; (10) sharp white stripe or line of broken white spots on sublabials from level of eye to below or behind ear; (11) brown band on neck, but large black prescapular blotch absent; (12) proximal half of tail with 8–13 dark brown or green bands; (13) buccal epithelium and tongue yellow or orange. 
CommentDistribution: see map in Shaney et al 2020: 130 (Fig. 1). 
EtymologyThe new name is a Latin adjective meaning southern. Dendragama australis occurs farther south than any of its congeners. 
  • Harvey, Michael B.; Kyle Shaney, Irvan Sidik, Nia Kurniawan, and Eric N. Smith 2017. Endemic Dragons of Sumatra’s Volcanoes: New Species of Dendragama (Squamata: Agamidae) and Status of Salea rosaceum Thominot. Herpetological Monographs 31 (1): 69–97 - get paper here
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