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Dendragama schneideri (AHL, 1926)

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Draconinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Schneider’s Tree Agama 
SynonymAcanthosaura schneideri AHL 1926
Dendragama boulengeri — WERNER 1900
Dendragama boulengeri — SCHENKEL 1901
Dendragama boulengeri — DE ROOIJ 1915: 119 (in part)
Dendragama boulengeri — WERMUTH 1967
Dendragama boulengeri — HÄUPL 1994
Dendragama boulengeri — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 166–167 (in part)
Dendragama boulengeri — DENZER et al. 1997
Dendragama boulengeri — HALLERMANN 2000 
DistributionIndonesia (Sumatra)

Type locality: Mount Singalang, West Sumatra (elevation 2800 feet) = Gunung Singgalang, Kabupaten Agam, Sumatera Barat, Indonesia, 0.38°S, 100.36°E (= 3.005538°N, 98.923650°E)  
TypesHolotype: ZMB 15664, "Simbolon, Battaker-Hochebene, Sumatra", leg. Schneider. Other material: UTA, MZB, 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A species reaching at least 201 mm in total length (SVL) and distinguished from congeners by the following characters: (1) midbody scales 58–67; (2) dorsal scales heterogeneous across flanks (Fig 6); (3) strongly keeled white/yellow scales randomly distributed along flanks (more numerous and distinct in females); (4) ventral scales 48–59; (5) banding pattern along flanks often muddled, but typically vertical when present; (6) mouth and tongue pink to red in life; (7) narrow, vertical black stripes across dorsal crest, limbs, digits and most of tail; (8) female color in life dark brown, yellow and black with amber coloration on underside, while males green and lacking amber coloration along ventral surface; (9) dorsal and nuchal crest clearly separated by 5–9 dorsal scales; (10) dorsal crest serrate, extending to base of the tail, comprised of 23–31 projecting, triangular scales; (11) a series of 3–4 enlarged tubercles present along the chin of males and females; (12) A series of 12–18 strongly keeled, white/yellow femoral spines present (combined count on both sides) (Shaney et al. 2020).

Coloration in life. There is distinct sexual dichromatism in this species and coloration changes in all Dendragama in response to rough handling. Females of Dendragama schneideri are typically shades of dark brown, green, and black with vertical black and yellow bands running along the extent of the dorsal crest. Bands extend almost to the end of the tail; tail bands 14–18 (12.2 ± 0.83), and enlarged green, yellow or white, strongly keeled scales are present intermittently along the flanks. Black and yellow/ green bands also extend along all limbs, hands, and feet. A black spot is present under the base of the nuchal crest as in other species of Dendragama. The throat has amber and brown coloration, which may or may not be broken up by small lateral brown lines. Brown and amber coloration extends along the lower flanks and all the way to the end of the tail. Yellow and black lines radiate around the eyes and across much of the face. Yellow, green or white enlarged tubercles are present below the eye and ear, and the mouth is pink to red (Shaney et al. 2020). 
CommentSynonymy: after Shaney et al. 2020. Acanthosaura schneideri was synonymized with D. boulengeri by Manthey & Grossmann 1997, but Harvey et al. 2017 considered it as a valid species. Shaney et al. 2020 formally revalidated D. schneideri.

Distribution: see map in Shaney et al 2020: 130 (Fig. 1). 
EtymologyThe name “schneideri” honors Gustav Schneider (17 January 1867–14 April 1948). 
  • Ahl, E. 1926. Neue Eidechsen und Amphibien. Zool. Anz. 67: 186-192
  • de Rooij, N. de 1915. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. I. Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 384 pp. - get paper here
  • Denzer, Wolfgang; Günther, Rainer; Manthey, Ulrich 1997. Annotated type catalogue of the Agamid lizards (Reptilia: Squamata: Agamidae) in the Museum für Naturkunde der Humbolt-Universität zu Berlin (former Zoological Museum Berlin). Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 73 (2): 309-332 - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • Schenkel, E. 1901. Achter Nachtrag zum Katalog der herpetologischen Sammlung des Basler Museums. Verh. naturf. Ges. Basel, 13:142-199. - get paper here
  • Wermuth, Heinz 1967. Liste der rezenten Amphibien und Reptilien. Agamidae. Das Tierreich 86: 1-127
  • Werner, F. 1900. Reptilien und Batrachier aus Sumatra, gesammelt Herrn. Gustav Schneider jr., im Jahre 1897-1898. Zool. Jahrb. (syst) 13: 479-508 - get paper here
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