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Dendrosauridion yanesha LEHR, MORAVEC, LUNDBERG, KÖHLER, CATENAZZI & ŠMÍD, 2019

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae, Cercosaurinae, Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Yanesha tree microtegu
Spanish: Lagartija arboricola de Yanesha 
SynonymDendrosauridion yanesha LEHR, MORAVEC, LUNDBERG, KÖHLER, CATENAZZI & ŠMÍD 2019 
DistributionPeru (Oxapampa)

Type locality: mountain ridge close to the radio tower at Chacos (10.658S, 75.298W; WGS84), 2780 m a.s.l., Distrito Oxapampa, Provincia Oxapampa, Region Pasco, Peru  
TypesHolotype: MUSM 25345 (sample code ML 1352, GenBank Accession # MH579624, MH579658, MH579685), an adult male, collected on 2 November 2005 by M. Lundberg. Paratypes (Figs 6–7): Two males (one adult, one juvenile): NMP-P6V 75204 (sample code ML 853), adult male, collected at the type locality on 21 August 2004 by M. Lundberg; MUSM 27618 (sample code EL 409; erroneously labelled as MUSM 27610 in Moravec et al. 2018; GenBank Accession # MH579623); juvenile male, collected in a secondary forest at Hospedaje Alfamayo (ca. 13.0656S, 72.416W; WGS84), 2825 m a.s.l., Distrito Huayopata, Provincia La Convención, Region Cusco, Peru, on 29 March 2009 by E. Lehr. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Phenotypic synapomorphies are not known for this genus. Morphologically, Dendrosauridion gen. n. can be distinguished from all other genera of Cercosaurinae by the combination of the following characters: lower palpebral disc transparent, not divided (divided in Anadia, Andinosaura, Euspondylus, Gelanesaurus, Oreosaurus, Petracola, Riama, and most Placosoma species; opaque in Pholidobolus); dorsal scales smooth (keeled in Cercosaura and most Proctoporus; strongly keeled and tuberculate in Echinosaura, Gelanesaurus, Neusticurus, Potamites; minute tubercles on posterior dorsal scales in Placosoma; slightly rugose in Selvasaura); lateral scales distinctly smaller than dorsal scales (lateral scales not distinctly reduced in size in Macropholidus); lateral scales adjacent to ventrals nongranular, not forming a distinct longitudinal line along body axis (granular, forming a continuous series of small lateral scales bordering the ventral scales in Proctoporus) (comp., e.g., Oftedal 1974, Cadle & Chuna 1995, Altamirano-Benavides et al. 2013, Kok et al. 2013, Torres-Carvajal & Mafla-Endara 2013, Echevarría et al. 2015, Borges-Nojosa et al. 2016, Chávez et al. 2017, Sánchez-Pacheco et al. 2017, Moravec et al. 2018).
Because of some superficial resemblance of Dendrosau­ ridion gen. n. and Proctoporus we compare both genera. According to Goicoechea et al. (2012) and Mamani et al. (2015), Proctoporus are small to medium-sized, semi-fossorial lizards that occur in Yungas forests and wet montane grasslands, between 1000 and 4000 m a.s.l., along the Amazonian versant of the Andes from central Peru to Bolivia and northern Argentina). The 16–17 currently known species of Proctoporus (Uetz et al. 2018) all have keeled dorsal scales (except P. xestus which has smooth dorsals, and P. laudahnae which has striated dorsals), and a narrow continuous series of small lateral scales bordering the ventral scales. Dendrosauridion gen. n. can be distinguished from Proctoporus (characters in parentheses) phenotypically based on its arboreal habits (semi-fossorial), its smooth dorsal scales (keeled in all except P. xestus and P. laudah­ nae), and its lateral scales forming an irregular pattern up to seven scales wide on the flanks, which is not discernable as a distinct longitudinal line along the body axis (continuous series of small lateral scales bordering the ventral scales), and its pointed and moderately long snout (bluntly rounded, short).
Dendrosauridion gen. n. can be distinguished from Unnamed clade 2 (sensu Torres-Carvajal et al. 2016, Moravec et al. 2018; characters in parentheses) phenotypically based on its arboreal habits (semi-fossorial), its smooth dorsal scales (weakly keeled dorsal scales), lateral scales forming an irregular pattern up to seven scales wide on the flanks, which is not discernible as a distinct longitudinal line along body axis (continuous series of small lateral scales bordering the ventral scales), and its pointed and moderately long snout (bluntly rounded, short).
Genetically, the new genus is identified as a distinct clade separated from other cercosaurines, but its phylogenetic affinities to other cercosaurine genera remain uncertain (Moravec et al. 2018, Fig. 2).

Diagnosis: A small gymnophthalmid (SVL 59.1–60.2 mm, N = 2 adult males), which can be characterized by the following combination of characters: 1) body slender, slightly depressed, maximum SVL 60.2 mm in males, females unknown; 2) head pointed, about 1.4 times longer than wide, 1.3 times wider than high, distinctly wider than neck; 3) ear opening distinct, moderately recessed; 4) nasals separated by undivided frontonasal; 5) prefrontals, frontal, frontoparietals, parietals, postparietals and interparietal present; 6) parietals as long as wide; 7) supraoculars four, anteriormost one fused with anteriormost superciliary; 8) superciliar series complete, consisting of four scales, anteriormost one fused with anteriormost supraocular; 9) nasal shield completely divided vertically behind the posterior margin of the nostril (Fig. 3A); 10) loreal in contact with second supralabial; 11) supralabials seven; 12) genials in five pairs, first and second pairs in contact; 13) collar present, containing 8–10 enlarged scales; 14) dorsals in 39–41 transverse rows, subhexagonal to rectangular, irregularly shaped (pentagonal to trapezoid) on posterior midbody along vertebral line, smooth, slightly subimbricate; 15) ventrals in 27–28 transverse rows, squared to rectangular, smooth, juxtaposed; 16) scales around midbody 34–38; 17) laterals ovoid, half the size of dorsals or smaller, forming an irregular pattern up to seven scales wide on flanks, which is not discernable as a distinct longitudinal line along body axis; 18) limbs pentadactyl, all digits clawed, adpressed and extended forelimb reaching anteriorly to fourth supralabial; 19) subdigital lamellae under Finger IV 16–18, under Toe IV 21–23; 20) femoral pores in males 8–11; 21) six large preanal plates; 22) tail about 1.9 times longer than SVL (incomplete tail); 23) caudals rectangular, smooth, subimbricate; 24) lower palpebral disc oval, transparent, undivided; 25) in life, dorsal ground coloration of head, body, limbs and tail pale greyish brown; head, back, flanks and tail with small to large irregular dark brown flecks or spots; rostral and mental shields pale orange brown; a short cream-white or dirty white (yellow in the juvenile specimen) stripe bordered with dark brown running from posterior margin of eye to outer margin of parietal; a narrow (3–4 scales wide) pale greyish-brown vertebral stripe from neck to tail can be present (tan to copper and more distinct in the single juvenile specimen); a dorsolateral row of cream-white, yellow
or orange spots on each side of body and tail (spots may be bordered by dark brown dorsal or lateral spots); ocelli-like spots above insertion of each forelimb; supraand infralabials creamy white; a white subocular blotch continuing as a white ventrolateral stripe to the insertion of arm (bordered with dark brown in juvenile specimen); flanks and tail ventrolaterally creamy white; throat greyish white, or yellowish orange with grey spots laterally; neck and collar grey or yellowish orange; chest pale yellow or yellowish orange, belly, cloacal area, ventral surfaces of hind limbs and tail dull orange (with small dark brown markings on each scale in juvenile specimen); ventrolateral parts of body and ventral face of the forelimbs pale grey; iris tan with a pale orange tint. 
CommentType species: Dendrosauridion yanesha is the type species of the genus Dendrosauridion LEHR, MORAVEC, LUNDBERG, KÖHLER, CATENAZZI & ŠMÍD 2019. 
EtymologyThe generic name Dendrosauridion is derived from the Greek nouns ‘dendron’ (tree; neutrum) and ‘sauridion’ (small lizard; diminutive, neutrum) and is in allusion to the arboreal habits of the type species.
The species epithet yanesha is used in reference to the indigenous people Yanesha’ or Amuesha that is native to forests in the central Peruvian regions of Huánuco, Junín, and Pasco at altitudes up to 1600 m a.s.l. 
  • ALTAMIRANO-BENAVIDES, MARCO; HUSSAM ZAHER, LUCIANA LOBO, FELIPE GOBBI GRAZZIOTIN, PEDRO MURILO SALES-NUNES & MIGUEL TREFAUT RODRIGUES, 2013. A new species of lizard genus Potamites from Ecuador (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae). Zootaxa 3717 (3): 345–358 - get paper here
  • BORGES-NOJOSA; DIVA MARIA, ULISSES CARAMASCHI, MIGUEL TREFAUT RODRIGUES 2016. A new species of lizard Placosoma Tschudi, 1847 (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the relictual forest mountains of the State of Ceará, Brazil. Zootaxa 4169 (1): 160–170 - get paper here
  • Cadle J E; Chuna M P 1995. A new lizard of the genus Macropholidus (Teiidae) from a relictual humid forest of northwestern Peru, and notes on Macropholidus ruthveni Noble. Breviora (501): 1-39 - get paper here
  • CHÁVEZ, GERMÁN; ALESSANDRO CATENAZZI, PABLO J. VENEGAS 2017. A new species of arboreal microteiid lizard of the genus Euspondylus (Gymnophtalmidae: Cercosaurinae) from the Andean slopes of central Peru with comments on Peruvian Euspondylus. Zootaxa 4350 (2): 301–316 - get paper here
  • Echevarría LY, Barboza AC, Venegas PJ. 2015. A new species of montane gymnophthalmid lizard, genus Cercosaura (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae), from the Amazon slope of northern Peru. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 9(1): 34–44 (e109) - get paper here
  • KOK, P. J. R., MEANS, D. B. & RIVAS, G. A. 2013. First record of the genus Anadia (Reptilia, Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) from Guyana based on an enigmatic specimen from Mount Kopinang, Wokomung Massif. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi 8(1): 27-39 - get paper here
  • Kwet, A. 2019. Jubiläumsbeschreibung aus Peru: die 250. Zwergteju-Art. Elaphe 2019 (4): 58
  • Lehr, Edgar; Jiří Moravec, Mikael Lundberg, Gunther Köhler, Alessandro Catenazzi & Jiří Šmíd, 2019. A new genus and species of arboreal lizard (Gymnophthalmidae: Cercosaurinae) from the eastern Andes of Peru. Salamandra 55 (1): 1–13 - get paper here
  • Moravec J, Šmíd J, Štundl J, Lehr E 2018. Systematics of Neotropical microteiid lizards (Gymnophthalmidae, Cercosaurinae), with the description of a new genus and species from the Andean montane forests. ZooKeys 774: 105-139 - get paper here
  • Oftedal,O.T. 1974. A revision of the genus Anadia (Sauria, Teiidae). Arquivos de Zoologia, Sao Paulo 25: 203-265 - get paper here
  • Sánchez-Pacheco, S. J., Torres-Carvajal, O., Aguirre-Peñafiel, V., Sales-Nunes, P. M., Verrastro, L., Rivas, G. A., Rodrigues, M. T., Grant, T. and Murphy, R. W. 2017. Phylogeny of Riama (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae), impact of phenotypic evidence on molecular datasets, and the origin of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta endemic fauna. Cladistics, doi:10.1111/cla.12203 [print: 2018] - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Paola Mafla-Endara 2013. Evolutionary history of Andean Pholidobolus and Macropholidus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) lizards. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 68 (2): 212–217 - get paper here
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