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Dipsas pratti (BOULENGER, 1897)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Pratt's Snail-eater 
SynonymLeptognathus pratti BOULENGER 1897: 523
Leptognathus triseriatus COPE 1899: 309
Leptognathus nigriceps WERNER 1916: 310
Dipsas niceforoi PRADO 1940: 14
Dipsas tolimensis PRADO 1941: 345
Dipsas pratti — PETERS 1960: 112
Dipsas pratti — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 89
Dipsas pratti — HARVEY 2008
Dipsas pratti — WALLACH et al. 2014: 234
Dipsas cf. pratti — ACUÑA-VARGAS 2016 
DistributionColombia (Antioquia, Santander, Bolívar, Valle del Cauca), Venezuela (Zulia)

Type locality: Medellin, Colombia  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.20.52, formerly (BARROS et al. 2012); Syntype: AMNH 17525 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Dipsas pratti is a robust snake of the tribe Dipsadini defined by the following characters: (1) dorsal scale rows 15 – 15 – 15; (2) temporals excluded from the orbit by postoculars; (3) two pairs of infralabials in contact behind the mental; (4) infralabials broadly contacting first and second pairs of chinshields, sublabials separating infralabials from preventrals and ventrals; (5) loreal variable, though more specimens exhibit loreals that are longer than high or slightly square and occasionally higher than long ,entering orbit; (6) preocular present above loreal, excluding prefrontal from orbit; (7) dorsal surface of head uniform brown in adults, young specimens with some yellow marks on the cephalic scales; (8) labial scales heavily pigmented yellow both in adults and juveniles, young specimens with a narrow yellow bar extending from behind the eyes to the last supralabials; (9) nuchal collar absent in adults, but present in young specimens; (10) usually fewer than 30 bands with or without lighter centers but rarely resembling paired ellipses, first band without contacting parietals; (11) bands complete in young specimens, however in adults and old specimens only the faint narrow yellow line can be observed on either side of the diffuse bands; (12) interspaces brown but lighter than the bands; (13) venter uniform grey brown; (14) ventrals, excluding preventrals, 175 – 181 in males, 167 – 176 in females; (15) subcaudals 75 – 81 in males, 62 – 75 in females, although Harvey (2008) reports 60 – 89 for the species; (16) maxillary teeth more than 15 [see Tables 1 – 2 as well as descriptions of D. pratti in Harvey (2008) and Harvey & Embert (2008)] [from BARROS et al. 2012]. 
CommentSynonymy mostly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970. Four species of Dipsas were described (by Cope 1899; Prado 1940, 1941; Werner 1916) and were found to be juveniles of D. pratti (the differences reported only reflected ontogenetic changes, Peters 1960).

Conservation: known from only 13 specimens (including the holotype) [BARROS et al. 2012].

Habitat: fully arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
EtymologyNamed after Antwerp Edgar Pratt (ca. 1850-ca. 1920), an explorer and naturalist, as were his sons, Felix and Charles. 
  • Acuña-Vargas, J. C. 2016. Anfibios y Reptiles asociados a cinco coberturas de la tierra, municipio de Dibulla, La Guajira, Colombia. Acta Zoológica Mexicana (n. s.), 32(2): 133-146 - get paper here
  • Barros, Tito R.; Robert C. Jadin, José Rances Caicedo-Portilla and Gilson A. Rivas 2012. Discovery of a rare snail-eater snake in Venezuela (Dipsadinae, Dipsas pratti), with additions to its natural history and morphology. Zoosyst. Evol. 88 (1) , 125–134 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1897. Description of a new snake from the Andes of Colombia. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 20 (120): 523 - get paper here
  • Carvajal-Cogollo, J.E.; L.E. Rojas-Murcia. & G. Cárdenas-Arévalo 2020. Reptiles del Caribe colombiano/ Reptiles of the Colombian Caribbean. Tunja: Editorial UPTC, 268 pp. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1899. Contributions to the herpetology of New Granada and Argentina, with descriptions of new forms. Philadelphia Mus. Sci. Bull. (1): 1-19 - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Harvey, Michael B. 2008. New and Poorly Known Dipsas (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Northern South America. Herpetologica 64 (4): 422-451 - get paper here
  • Harvey, Michael B. and Dirk Embert 2008. Review of Bolivian Dipsas (Serpentes: Colubridae), with Comments on Other South American Species. Herpetological Monographs 22 (1): 54-105 - get paper here
  • Harvey, Michael B.; Gilson Rivas Fuenmayor, José Rances Caicedo-Portilla, and José Vicente Rueda-Almonacid 2009. Systematics of the Enigmatic Dipsadine Snake Tropidodipsas perijanensis Alemán (Serpentes: Colubridae) and Review of Morphological Characters of Dipsadini. Herpetological Monographs 22 (1): 106-132 - get paper here
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela. Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Páez, V.P. et al. 2002. Guía de campo de algunas especies de anfibios y reptiles de Antioquia. Universidad de Antioquia, - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Peters , J. A. 1960. The snakes of the subfamily Dipsadinae. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan (114): 224 pp. - get paper here
  • Prado, A. 1941. Algumas serpentes Colombianas, com a descriçao de uma nova especie do genero Dipsas. Ciencias, México, 2: 345
  • Prado, Alcides 1942. Notas ofiológicas 13. redescripção de duas serpentes colombianas. Memorias do Instituto Butantan 16: 1-3 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner,F. 1916. Bemerkungen über einige niedere Wirbeltiere der Anden von Kolumbien mit Beschreibungen neuer Arten. Zool. Anz. 47: 301-311 - get paper here
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