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Dipsas turgida (COPE, 1868)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesPortuguese: dormideira
Portuguese: Cobra-Lesma, Dormideira, Dormideira-Ocidental, Dormideira-Rajada, Dormideira-Tigrada, Papa-Lesma 
SynonymCochliophagus inaequifasciatus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 480
Leptognathus turgida COPE 1868
Leptognathus atypicus COPE 1874 (incertae sedis fide CADLE 2007)
Leptognathus turgida — COPE 1887: 58
Leptognathus inaequifasciata — BOULENGER 1896
Leptognathus inaequifasciata — WERNER 1910: 281
Leptognathus turgida — WERNER 1910: 283
Tropidodipsas spilogaster GRIFFIN 1916: 197
Sibynomorphus turgidus — AMARAL 1926
Sibynomorphus inaequifasciatus — PETERS 1960: 146
Sibynomorphus turgidus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Sibynomorphus turgidus — CEI 1993
Sibynomorphus turgidus — LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999: 34
Sibynomorphus inaequifasciatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 669
Sibynomorphus turgidus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 670
Dipsas turgida — ARTEAGA et al. 2018
Dipsas turgida — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionN Paraguay, Uruguay, SE Bolivia, Brazil (Mato Grosso, Rio Grande do Sul), Argentina (Misiones, Corrientes, Chaco, Entre Rios, Santa Fe, Córdoba [HR 35: 192], Tucumán, Salta, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero)

Type locality: Northern part of Paraguay River.

inaequifasciatus: Paraguay ?; Type locality: South America.  
TypesSyntypes: USNM 5815 a, a 406 mm male, and 5815b, a 408 mm male (T.J. Page, 1853-1856).
HOLOTYPE. Probably in Paris Museum, collected by M. Verreaux [inaequifasciatus] 
CommentSynonymy after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970 and CEI 1993. S. inaequifasciatus (from Paraguay) is a synonym fide Cacciali et al. 2016). Based on the original description Peters (1960) noted that all but one of the holotype's characters have been reported from aberrant individuals of S. vagans, and that it also shares characters in common with S. neuwiedi. It is therefore possible that S. inaequifasciatus is conspecific with one of these two species, in which case the name S. inaequifasciatus would have priority (Peters 1960). In the absence of additional specimens and reliable information on its provenance its appropriate taxonomic status cannot be verified and the holotype ("Probably in the Paris Museum" - Peters 1960) has not been located. Peters (1960) recommends "discarding" the name on this basis, but despite this recommendation the name S. inaequifasciatus continues to be used to refer to a valid species in checklists for Brazil and (erroneously) Paraguay." (P. Bowles, pers. comm., 3 Mar 2015)

Distribution: "This species is known from a single specimen from "Sudamerica", probably collected in Brazil but never subsequently recorded there. A specimen from Paraguay originally assigned to this species (Cope 1862) was later included in the type series of the new species Sibynomorphus turgidus by the same author (Cope 1868). Recent examination of this individual confirmed its identity as S. turgidus (P. Cacciali, unpubl. data), and the holotype is therefore the only example of S. inaequifasciatus known to exist. See map in Nogueira et al. 2019.

The type locality of Cochliophagus inaequifasciatus was repord to be in South America, “doubtfully from Brazil”; apart from that the distribution is unknown. The specimen from Paraguay has been reported by Cope (fide Peters 1960).

Diet: primarily molluscs, snails, slugs (Santos et al. 2017). 
EtymologyNamed after Latin turgeō (“swell out”) +‎ -idus. Turgidus (feminine turgida), adjective, meaning "swollen, inflated," is clearly a reference to Cope's description of the species, "... and the top of the muzzle swollen both longitudinally and transversely." 
  • Abalos, J.W., Baez, E.C., & Nader, R. 1964. Serpientes de Santiago del Estero. Acta Zoologica Lilloana 20: 211-283
  • Amaral,A. do 1926. 2.a nota de nomenclatura Ophiologica. Sobre o emprego do nome generico Sibynomorphus em vez de ‘‘ Leptognathus’’, ‘‘Stremmatognathus’’, ‘‘Anholodon’’, etc. Revista do Museu Paulista 14: 7–9
  • Arteaga A, Salazar-Valenzuela D, Mebert K, Peñafiel N, Aguiar G, Sánchez-Nivicela JC, Pyron RA, Colston TJ, Cisneros-Heredia DF, Yánez-Muñoz MH, Venegas PJ, Guayasamin JM, Torres-Carvajal O 2018. Systematics of South American snail-eating snakes (Serpentes, Dipsadini), with the description of five new species from Ecuador and Peru. ZooKeys 766: 79-147 - get paper here
  • Beconi, Hugo Cabral; Alberto Carosini, Paul Smith 2019. Die Hard: How Paraguayan snakes avoid predation and live to tell the tale. Herpetology Notes 12: 513-518 - get paper here
  • Cabrera,M.R. & Merlini,H. 1989. A new record of Sibynomorphus turgidus (COPE 1868) from southern South America (Serpentes: Colubridae). Iheringia, Ser. Zool. (69): 151-153
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist. SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Cacciali-Sosa, Pier 2006. Las serpientes caracoleras (Colubridae: Dipsadini) de Paraguay. Revista Española de Herpetología 20: 71-85 - get paper here
  • Cadle, J.E. 2007. The snake genus Sibynomorphus (Colubridae: Dipsadinae: Dipsadini) in Peru and Ecuador, with comments on the systematics of Dipsadini. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 158(5):183-283 - get paper here
  • Carreira Vidal, Santiago 2002. Alimentación de los ofidios de Uruguay. Asoc. Herp. Esp., Monograf. Herp. 6, 127 pp. - get paper here
  • CARREIRA, S., M. MENEGHEL AND F. ACHAVAL 2005. Reptiles de Uruguay. DI.R.A.C., Facultad de Ciências Ed., Montevideo, 637 pp.
  • Carreira, S.; Brazeiro, A.; Camargo, A.; da Rosa, I.; Canavero, A. & Maneyro, M. 2012. DIVERSITY OF REPTILES OF URUGUAY: KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION GAPS. Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2a época) 21 (1-2): 9-29 - get paper here
  • Cei, J. M. 1993. Reptiles del noroeste, nordeste y este de la Argentina. Museo Regionale Sci. Naturale Torino, Monografie 14: 1-949
  • Cope, E.D. 1868. An examination of the Reptilia and Batrachia obtained by the Orton Expedition to Equador and the Upper Amazon, with notes on other species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 20: 96-140 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1887. Synopsis of the Batrachia and Reptilia obtained by H. H. Smith in the Province of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 24: 44-60 - get paper here
  • Costa, Márcio Tavares; Luis Roberval Bortoluzzi Castro, Andrielli Vilanova de Carvalho, Edward Frederico Castro Pessano 2021. Hypomelanism in Dipsas turgida Cope, 1868 (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Herpetology Notes 14: 357-359
  • Duméril, A.M.C., G. BIBRON & A.H.A. DUMÉRIL 1854. Erpétologie générale ou Histoire Naturelle complète des Reptiles. Vol. 7 (partie 1). Paris, xvi + 780 S. - get paper here
  • França, R. C., França, F. G., Rödder, D., & Solé, M. 2022. Historical collection of snakes from Brazil by herpetologist and biogeographer Paul Müller (1940–2010), deposited at the Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig, Germany. Bonn zoological Bulletin 71 (1): 41–49 - get paper here
  • Freiberg, M.A. 1982. Snakes of South America. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, NJ, 189 pp. - get paper here
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  • Griffin, L.F. 1916. A catalog of the Ophidia from South America at present (June 1916) contained in the Carnegie Museum with descriptions of some new species. Mem. Carnegie Mus. 7 (3) [1915]: 163-228 - get paper here
  • Leynaud, Gerardo C. and Enrique H. Bucher 1999. La fauna de serpientes del Chaco Sudamericano: diversidad, distribución geografica y estado de conservación. Academia Nacional de Ciencias Miscelanea (98):1-46
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Pesci, Giuliano; Sanchez, José Manuel; Muniz Leão, Suelem; Pelegrin, Nicolás 2018. Reptiles y anfibios de una localidad del Chaco Húmedo en Formosa, Argentina. Cuad. herpetol. 32 (1): 47-54 - get paper here
  • Peters , J. A. 1960. The snakes of the subfamily Dipsadinae. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan (114): 224 pp. - get paper here
  • Rivas, L. R., Eversole, C. B., & Powell, R. L. 2023. Urban herpetofauna of Trinidad, Beni Department, Bolivia. Herpetology Notes, 16, 399-410
  • Santos, M. M. dos, Klaczko, J., & da Costa Prudente, A. L. 2022. Sexual dimorphism and allometry in malacophagus snakes (Dipsadidae: Dipsadinae). Zoology, 126026 - get paper here
  • Santos, Marina Meireles dos; Fernanda Magalhães da Silva, Erika Hingst-Zaher, Fabio Andrade Machado, Hussam El Dine Zaher, Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente 2017. Cranial adaptations for feeding on snails in species of Sibynomorphus (Dipsadidae: Dipsadinae). Zoology 120: 24–30 - get paper here
  • Scrocchi G. Porto M. Rey L. 1993. Descripcion de una especie nueva y situacion del genero Sibynomorphus (Serpentes: Colubridae) en la Argentina. REVISTA BRASILEIRA DE BIOLOGIA 53 (2): 197- 208.
  • Scrocchi, G.J.; Moreta, J.C. & Kretzschmar, S. 2006. Serpientes del Noroeste Argento [Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Catamarca, La Rioja, Santiago del Estero]. Fundación Miguel Lillo, Tucumán, 178 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner, F. 1910. Neue oder seltenere Reptilien des Musée Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique in Brüssel. [Mabuia dolloi, Mabuia polylepis]. Zool. Jb. Abt. Syst. Okol. Geogr. 28 [1909]: 263-288. - get paper here
  • Williams,J.D. & Francini,F. 1991. A checklist of the Argentine snakes. Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 9 (1): 55-90
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